Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2016 | vol. 58 | No 1 |

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Abstract Distribution of genetic diversity among and within plant populations may depend on the mating system and the mechanisms underlying the efficiency of pollen and seed dispersal. In self-incompatible species, negative frequency-dependent selection acting on the self-incompatibility locus is expected to decrease intensity of spatial genetic structure (SGS) and to reduce population differentiation. We investigated two populations (peripheral and more central) of wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), a self-incompatible, scattered tree species to test the differences in population differentiation and spatial genetic structure assessed at the self-incompatibility locus and neutral nuclear microsatellites. Although, both populations exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity regardless of the marker type, significant differentiation was noticed. Differences between FST and RST suggested that in the case of microsatellites both mutations and drift were responsible for the observed differentiation level, but in the case of the S-RNase locus drift played a major role. Microsatellites indicated a similar and significant level of spatial genetic structure in both populations; however, at the S-RNase locus significant spatial genetic structure was found only in the fragmented population located at the north-eastern species range limits. Differences in SGS between the populations detected at the self-incompatibility locus were attributed mainly to the differences in fragmentation and population history.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sandra Jankowska-Wroblewska
Joanna Warmbier
Jarosław Burczyk
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Abstract Studies concerning the ultrastructure of the periendothelial zone integumentary cells of Asteraceae species are scarce. The aim was to check whether and/or what kinds of integument modifications occur in Onopordum acanthium. Ovule structure was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. For visualization of calcium oxalate crystals, the polarizing microscopy was used. The periendothelial zone of integument in O. acanthium is well developed and composed of mucilage cells near the integumentary tapetum and large, highly vacuolated cells at the chalaza and therefore they differ from other integumentary cells. The cells of this zone lack starch and protein bodies. Periendothelial zone cells do not have calcium oxalate crystals, in contrast to other integument cells. The disintegration of periendothelial zone cells was observed in a mature ovule. The general ovule structure of O. acanthium is similar to other members of the subfamily Carduoideae, although it is different to “Taraxacum”, “Galinsoga” and “Ratibida” ovule types.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jolanta Kolczyk
Piotr Stolarczyk
Bartosz J. Płachno
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to illuminate the effects of fulvic acid in plants’ stress signaling pathway. 2.0 mg/l fulvic acid was sprayed on soybean leaves for 3 days at 12 h intervals, followed by treatment of 150 mM NaCl or exposed to heat stress at 35°C for 2 h over 2 days. Pre-treatment with fulvic acid increased the relative water content (RWC), antioxidant enzyme, isoenzyme activities (SOD, APX, GST), as well as alleviated the stress-induced oxidative damage by decreasing the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, the application of fulvic acid under salt stress induced rubisco expression only at 12 h, while it induced the expression of cytochrome c oxidase at 6 h and 12 h. On the other hand, fulvic acid under heat stress induced significant expression of both rubisco and cytochrome c oxidase at 6 h and 12 h. However, under high salinity conditions, fulvic acid suppressed the transcript levels of Hsp70, while it induced increases in Hsp70 levels under heat treatment at 6 h. As a result, in this study, fulvic acid played the role of a regulator and stimulant in stress response of soybean leaves.
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Authors and Affiliations

Burcu Seckin Dinler
Esra Gunduzer
Turgay Tekinay
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Abstract An efficient micropropagation protocol for production of genetically uniform clones of Eryngium campestre L. was developed. To determine the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on shoot and root development and bioactive compounds production, three variants of media differing in the content of macro- and micronutrients, as well as plant growth regulators of various types and concentrations were tested. The highest regeneration (100%), with over 13 shoots per explant, was induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.0 mg l−1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.1 mg l−1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The in vitro derived shoots multiplied through axillary bud formation were rooted and transferred to an experimental plot with 78% frequency of survival. Flow cytometry showed no variation in nuclear DNA between the seedlings and micropropagated plants. Preliminary thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that phenolic acids, saponins, flavonoids and acetylenes were present in plant biomass. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis revealed that shoots and roots from in vitro derived plants and root cultures maintained the ability to produce rosmarinic acid (RA), rosmarinic acid hexoside (RA-HEX) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). The highest phenolic acid content was detected in roots of in vitro regenerated plants. The extract from those roots expressed the highest inhibitory effect against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, as well as dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Kikowska
Barbara Thiem
Elwira Sliwinska
Monika Rewers
Mariusz Kowalczyk
Anna Stochmal
Jolanta Długaszewska
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Abstract Rehmannia glutinosa hairy roots were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and salicylic acid (SA) on increase of root biomass and production of iridoids (catalpol, harpagide) and phenylethanoids (verbascoside and isoverbascoside). The elicitors were added to 23-day-old culture separately at concentrations between 50 and 200 μM or in combinations at concentrations of 50 and 100 μM. Roots were harvested 72 h and 120 h after elicitation. The type of elicitor, its concentration and exposure time were found to strongly affect the content of each analyzed compound. A 72-hour treatment with 200 μM MeJa was the most effective in increase of verbascoside content (60.07 mg·DW−1 equivalent to 845.45 mg·L−1) and isoverbascoside (1.77 mg·DW−1 equivalent to 24.94 mg·L−1): these respective amounts were roughly 10- and 6.4-fold higher than the control values (unelicited roots). Exposure to 150 μM MeJa provided optimal harpagide content after 72 hours (0.136 mg·DW−1; 7.5-fold increase compared to the control), and catalpol content after 120 hours (up to 2.145 mg·DW−1). The combination of MeJa and SA also resulted in higher levels of secondary metabolites compared to the control culture, although these levels were lower than those observed for MeJa alone at the optimal concentration and exposure time. SA alone was less efficient in enhancing metabolite production than MeJa.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewelina Piątczak
Łukasz Kuźma
Halina Wysokińska
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Abstract The objective of the study was to assess the influence of methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors on accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), phenylacetic acid (PAA) and 2-phenylethanol (PE) in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays, saccharata group, cv. Złota Karłowa) seedlings. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of eight genes (ADH1, ADH2, AO2, CAO, PDC1, PDC2, PTA and LOX, encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and 2, primary amine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase 2, phenylalanine decarboxylase 1 and 2, phenylalanine (histidine) transaminase and lipoxygenase, respectively) involved in biosynthesis and turnover of PEA in maize tissues. In addition, the effect of MJ application on fresh biomass and growth of the tested seedlings was recorded. One-day MJ exposure increased the fresh weight of aerial parts and roots of Z. mays seedlings, whereas the opposite tendency occurred after 4-day of MJ treatment. One-day application of MJ resulted in an increase in the length of roots and its fluctuations in the aerial parts of maize plants, but extended exposure declined the growth of both parts of the seedlings. Methyl jasmonate elicitation caused various changes in the contents of PEA, PAA and PE in the maize seedlings. MJ treatments led to high upregulation of most genes, with the exception of three genes (i.e., ADH1, ADH2 and AO2) whose expression was downregulated after a 4-day exposure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hubert Sytykiewicz
Marcin Horbowicz
Wiesław Wiczkowski
Danuta Koczkodaj
Joanna Mitrus
Tomasz Sawicki
Julia Sławianowska
Magdalena Szwed
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Abstract Apple species and cultivars differ in nuclear (2C) DNA content and ploidy level. The majority of these genotypes are diploids, but there are some triploids and a few tetraploids. Nuclear DNA content is a specific feature and its flow cytometric evaluation can be helpful in differentiating taxa. For many apple genotypes – including all the Polish ones, these characteristics are not known. 2C DNA was evaluated in relation to leaf, flower, fruit, pollen grain and stomata sizes as well as to the flowering time for seventy genotypes (including 46 Polish cultivars) gathered in the gene bank of the Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice, Poland. For standard cultivars with the known chromosome number, 2C value was 1.71 pg for diploid cultivar ‘Alwa’ (2n=2x=34), 2.55 pg for triploid ‘Boskoop’ (3x=51), and 3.37 pg for tetraploid genome (4x=68) of mixoploid ‘McIntosh 2x+4x’. In 61 cultivars (including 41 Polish ones), the nuclear DNA content ranged from 1.58 to 1.78 pg indicating their diploid chromosome number. Five cultivars were identified as triploids (‘Bursztówka Polska’, ‘Pagacz’, ‘Rapa Zielona’, ‘Rarytas Śląski’ and ‘Witos’) owing to their nuclear DNA amount ranging between 2.42 and 2.58 pg. Leaf, flower, fruit, stomata and pollen grain sizes were on average significantly larger in triploids. Thus, in 3x plants the mean leaf surface was 49.1 cm2, flower diameter – 52.4 mm, fruit weight – 204.7 g, stomata length – 32.1 μm and pollen grain diameter – 33.7 μm, whereas in diploids – 36.0 cm2, 46.1 mm, 162.7 g, 28.4 μm and 30.7 μm, respectively. Pollen grain viability was on average significantly higher in diploids (75.6%), compared to triploids (22%). These results confirm that in apple, as in many other plant species, the higher ploidy level of triploids is generally associated with increased sizes of pollen grains, stomata, flowers, fruits and leaves but decreased pollen viability. No clear correlation between ploidy level and flowering time was found. In the case of mixoploid apple genotypes possessing diploid and tetraploid genomes, some phenotype observation is helpful in describing the ploidy level of the histogenic layers, L1 and L2. Small stomata sizes (similar to diploid) indicate diploid L1 and larger leaf sizes, compared to diploid counterparts, show tetraploid L2. The results will be used for breeding, in which it is important to determine maternal and paternal genotypes as well as the direction of the crossing that is of great importance in obtaining seeds and materials for further selection.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Podwyszyńska
Dorota Kruczyńska
Aleksandra Machlańska
Barbara Dyki
Iwona Sowik
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Abstract The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the D genome on embryoid induction and green plant regeneration in wheat anther culture and how it is influenced by low temperature and mannitol treatment. For this reason, the anther culture response of two Canadian bread wheat cultivars and their extracted tetraploids (AABB) was studied. As controls two cultivars well responding to anther-culture (i.e. cvs. Kavkaz/Cgn and Acheron) and a no-responding cultivar (cv. Vergina) were used. Approximately 3000 anthers of these cultivars were cultured and three pre-treatments were applied: cold pre-treatment for 7 and 18 days at 4°C, and 0.3M mannitol for seven days at 4°C. W14 and 190-2 were used as induction and regeneration media, respectively, and the basic MS medium as the rooting medium. No green plants were produced from the tetraploids, which supports the view that the D-genome chromosomes are necessary for androgenic response in wheat. Furthermore, the Canadian cultivars performed better after 18-day pre-treatment at 4°C. The extracted tetraploids produced fewer embryoids and performed better after seven days of cold pre-treatment. The controls well responding to anther culture performed better than the Canadian cultivars, although their best response was recorded after seven-day cold pre-treatment. Cultivar Vergina produced no green plants. The presence of mannitol influenced negatively both embryoid and green plant production. It was concluded that the D genome plays a crucial role in anther culture response of wheat and that this response is influenced by both the genotype and the duration of cold pre-treatment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Theano Lazaridou
Chryssanthi Pankou
Ioannis Xynias
Demetrios Roupakias
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Abstract The total soluble sugar content and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied for the first time during axillary shoot formation in Magnolia × ‘Spectrum’ in vitro in response to BAP (0.3 mg l−1), different levels of gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg l−1), sucrose (20 and 30 g l−1) and nitrogen salts (KNO3/NH4NO3; 100/100% and 75/50% relative to MS medium). Among various GA3 and sucrose/nitrogen salts ratios, the most effective axillary multiplication (5.9 shoots/explant) and leaf formation (25.7 leaves per multiplied clumps) were obtained after addition of GA3 at 0.1 mg l−1 to a BAP medium containing 20 g l−1 sucrose and reduced levels of nitrogen salts (75% KNO3 and 50% NH4NO3). The addition of GA3 to the BAP medium enhanced shoot formation by 36% and leaf formation by 27%. The highest shoot formation capacity of M. × ‘Spectrum’ in vitro coincided with enhanced levels of soluble sugar and peroxidase (POD) activity. Increasing GA3 concentration from 0.1 to 1.0 mg l−1 in the above medium resulted in inhibition of shoot and leaf formation and a decrease in the soluble sugar content. The influence of GA3 on the activities of catalase (CAT) and POD depended on its concentration and the levels of sucrose and nitrogen salts in the medium. The highest increase in CAT and POD activities, that coincided with the enhanced shoot formation capacity of M. × ‘Spectrum’ in vitro, was observed after addition of GA3 to the medium containing high levels of sucrose and nitrogen salts.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Wojtania
Edyta Skrzypek
Eleonora Gabryszewska
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Abstract Leaves and internodes from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants growing in different conditions were used for transformation with two strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes: ATCC 15384 and LBA 9402. Hairy roots formation was observed and the percentage of the transformed explants depended on the type of explant, time of inoculation and inoculum concentration. Inoculation of explants from ex vitro and in vitro plants with LBA 9402 strain led to higher efficiency of transformation than inoculation with ATCC 15384 strain. Growth rate of hairy roots in liquid culture was assessed under light and dark conditions. It was found that the growth of hairy roots decreased significantly under light conditions. Transformation of hairy roots growing in different culture conditions was confirmed at the molecular level using PCR method with primers constructed against rolB and rolC genes from A. rhizogenes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Żaneta Michalec-Warzecha
Laura Pistelli
Francesca D’Angiolillo
Marta Libik-Konieczny
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Abstract Chromosome numbers for 12 Hieracium s.str. species from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania and Serbia are given and their metaphase plates are illustrated. Chromosome numbers are published for the first time for H. albinum Fries 2n=4x=36, H. bukovicae Rohlena & Zahn; 2n=3x=27, H. retyezatense subsp. subatratiforme Neičeff & Zahn 2n=4x=36, H. velenovskyi Freyn 2n=3x=27, as well as two undescribed species belonging to the H. bohatschianum agg. 2n=4x=36 and H. nigrescens agg. 2n=4x=36 and a hybrid between H. naegelianum Pančić and H. bifidum 2n=4x=36.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krystyna Musiał
Zbigniew Szeląg
Agnieszka Janas

Editorial office

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Managing Editor
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA;
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland;
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia;
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy;
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland;
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland;
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria;
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia;
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland;
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic;
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France;
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland;
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland;
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom;
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria;
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey;
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants

Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland



Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594


Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891


Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study.
Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.

2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland

Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.

3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.

4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).

5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.

6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.

7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.

8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.

9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.

10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.

11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.

12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.

13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).

14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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