Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 2 June |

Abstract

The paper presents the special software for transient FE analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in a squirrel cage submerged motor working at cryogenic temperature. A time-stepping finite element method and transients analysis of an induction motor has been applied. The non-linearity of the magnetic circuit, the movement of the rotor, skewed slots, and the influence of temperature on electric and thermal properties of the materials has been taken into account. Developed on the basis of presented algorithm a computer program used to analyze the phenomenon of current displacement in the rotor bars of high-voltage cage induction motor working in cryogenic conditions. The results of the simulations are presented.

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Abstract

Contemporary sensorless AC drives require the use of electromechanical quantities estimation. The skin effect occurring in AC machines with solid secondary or with solid secondary elements causes machines of this type to be represented by equivalent circuits containing distributed elements, which makes the analysis of machine electrodynamic states more complicated and hinders the construction of relatively simple and effective estimators of electromechanical quantities. The variability of rotor parameters is modelled, with a good approximation, by the machine secondary multi-loop equivalent circuit with lumped elements. In this paper the construction procedure of electromechanical state variable estimators basing on this type of equivalent circuit will be presented. The simulation investigations of the created electromechanical quantities estimators, performed for the selected states of solid iron rotor AC machine operation will be shown as well.

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Abstract

A new design of decentralized Load Frequency Controller for interconnected thermal non-reheat power systems with AC-DC parallel tie-lines based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) tuned Integral and Proportional (IP) controller is proposed in this paper. A HVDC link is connected in parallel with an existing AC tie-line to stabilize the frequency oscillations of the AC tie-line system. Any optimum controller selected for load frequency control of interconnected power systems should not only stabilize the power system but also reduce the system frequency and tie line power oscillations and settling time of the output responses. In practice Load Frequency Control (LFC) systems use simple Proportional Integral (PI) or Integral (I) controller. The controller parameters are usually tuned based on classical or trial-and-error approaches. But they are incapable of obtaining good dynamic performance for various load change scenarios in multi-area power system. For this reason, in this paper GA tuned IP controller is used. A two area interconnected thermal non-reheat power system is considered to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller. The simulation results show that the proposed controller provides better dynamic responses with minimal frequency and tie-line power deviations, quick settling time and guarantees closed-loop stability margin.

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Abstract

This paper presents the concept of an innovative field-controlled axial-flux permanent-magnet (FCAFPM) machine. In order to show the working principle and features of the proposed dual-rotor with surface-mounted PM’s and iron poles, a toroidallywounded slotted single-stator FCAFPM machine is investigated and analyzed in detail, using 3-D FEAnalysis. The control range, back electromotive force (back-EMF), output and cogging torque components have been evaluated.

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Abstract

Harmonic minimisation in hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter involves complex nonlinear transcendental equation with multiple solutions. Hybrid cascaded multilevel can be implemented using reduced switch count when compared to traditional cascaded multilevel inverter topology. In this paper Biogeographical Based Optimisation (BBO) technique is applied to Hybrid multilevel inverter to determine the optimum switching angles with weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) as the objective function. Optimisation based on WTHD combines the advantage of both OMTHD (Optimal Minimisation of Total Harmonic Distortion) and SHE (Selective Harmonic Elimination) PWM. WTHD optimisation has the benefit of eliminating the specific lower order harmonics as in SHEPWM and minimisation of THD as in OMTHD. The simulation and experimental results for a 7 level multilevel inverter were presented. The results indicate that WTHD optimization provides both elimination of lower order harmonics and minimisation of Total Harmonic Distortion when compared to conventional OMTHD and SHE PWM. Experimental prototype of a seven level hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter is implemented to verify the simulation results.

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Abstract

This paper deals with a three-phase power system with hybrid transformer (HT) installed between two AC sources. The main aim of this paper is analyze the basic properties of HT with active load and ability to bidirectional energy flow. The HT contains two main units – a conventional transformer with electromagnetic coupling and PWM AC line chopper connected with secondary windings with electric coupling. The HT is located between the distribution system and a Local Balancing Area (LBA) with low power local energy sources. After describing the HT circuit and three-phase, twosources power system, the mathematical and circuit models of the AC source with HT are presented. These models are verified by means of the simulation and experimental test results obtained for a three-phase HT of about 3 kVA rated power.

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Abstract

Accurate prediction of power loss distribution within an electrical device is highly desirable as it allows thermal behavior to be evaluated at the early design stage. Three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to calculate dc and ac copper losses in the armature winding at high-frequency sinusoidal currents. The main goal of this paper is showing the end-winding effect on copper losses. Copper losses at high frequency are dominated by the skin and proximity effects. A time-varying current has a tendency to concentrate near the surfaces of conductors, and if the frequency is very high, the current is restricted to a very thin layer near the conductor surface. This phenomenon of nonuniform distribution of time-varying currents in conductors is known as the skin effect. The term proximity effect refers to the influence of alternating current in one conductor on the current distribution in another, nearby conductor. To evaluate the ac copper loss within the analyzed machine a simplified approach is adopted using one segment of stator core. To demonstrate an enhanced copper loss due to ac operation, the dc and ac resistances are calculated. The resistances ratio ac to dc is strongly dependent on frequency, temperature, shape of slot and size of slot opening.

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Abstract

In a deregulated electricity market, it is important to dispatch the generation in an economical manner and to ensure security under different operating conditions. In this study evolutionary computation based solution for optimal power flow is attempted. Social welfare optimization is taken as the objective function, which includes generation cost, transmission cost and consumer benefit function. Transmission cost is calculated using Bialek’s power flow tracing method. Severity index is applied as a constraint to measure the security. The objective function is calculated for pre and post contingency periods. Real power generations, real power loads and transformer tap settings are selected as control variables. Different bilateral and multilateral conditions are considered for analysis. A Human Group Optimization algorithm is used to find the solution of the problem. The IEEE 30 bus system is taken as a test system.

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Abstract

This paper presents an improved approach for locating and identifying faults for UHV overhead Transmission line by using GA-ANFIS. The proposed method uses one end data to identify the fault location. The ANFIS can be viewed either as a Fuzzy system, neural network or fuzzy neural network FNN. The integration with neural technology enhances fuzzy logic system on learning capabilities are proposed to analyze the UHV system under different fault conditions. The performance variation of two controllers in finding fault location is analyzed. This paper analyses various faults under different conditions in an UHV using Matlab/simulink. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as fault inception angle, fault resistance and fault distance. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be used as an efficient for accurate fault location on the transmission line.

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Abstract

The presented work gives an overview on simulation and experimental results of the power supply parameters’ influence on DBD discharge uniformity. The proposed study is about the use of quasi-pulsed, power electronic power supply and a saturable inductor in series with the discharge cell [1]. The simulation results are presented with a parallel DBD reactor model with linear critical voltage distribution. A more uniform current waveform is observed, however, due to small reactor capacitances no streamer formation could be verified in calculations. An experimental test stand was prepared with a double dielectric barrier discharge arrangement. The experimental results are presented with regard to the electrical oscilloscope waveforms and ICCD camera imaging. A more homogenous plasma was observed in the case of saturable inductor with saturation current set at the point of discharge formation. Two possible mechanisms are connected with this phenomenon – inductive element current support during discharge and/or current rise-time limitation [1].

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Abstract

This study suggests a new algorithm based on a combination of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm (GA) to improve voltage profile in a microgrid. The considered microgrid includes control variables such as onload tap changer (OLTC), active power output from distributed generators (DG) and reactive power output from feeder switched capacitors that are controlled in a microgrid controller (MGC) by communication links. The proposed method was used to obtain the optimum value of control variables to establish voltage stabilization in varying load condition as online. For establishing voltage stabilization at the microgrid, an objective function is defined and is tried to minimize it by control variables. The control variables were changed based on fuzzy logic and the GA was employed for finding the optimum shape of membership functions. In order to verify the proposed method, a 34 buses microgrid in varying load condition was analyzed and was compared with previous works.

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Abstract

The paper presents results of analysis of the influence of rotor construction on the steady-state torque-speed characteristics of a high-speed eddy-current brake. The investigation is carried out using two- and three-dimensional finite element models and measurements. A series of computations is carried out in order to find out the method for performance improvement of the considered system.
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Abstract

This paper presents a concept of an NxM Matrix Converter (MC) modeling under periodic control strategy patented in Poland. This strategy allows to change an Nphase input system of voltages and current with the frequency fi to the M-phase output system with the frequency fo, maintaining both systems symmetrical and providing small distortions of voltage and current waveforms at rather high frequencies. In this paper the control strategy is extended for dynamic states when one of the frequencies is changed. Matrix converter equations have been derived using the constrain matrix, which is determined by the switch states. The equations have the hybrid form of a multi-port circuit. To simplify these equations the symmetrical components of input and output voltages and currents have been applied. As a result, rather simple equations have been found. They can be interpreted to an equivalent scheme. All considerations are illustrated using an exemplary 6H3 matrix converter.
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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Andrzej Demenko, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Deputy/ Managing Editor
Mariusz Barański, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Łukasz Knypiński, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman: Marian P. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw, Poland
Secretary: Mariusz Jagieła, Opole, Poland

Members professors:
Anouar Belahcen, Espoo, Finland

Frede Blaabjerg,Aalborg, Denmark

Ion Boldea,Timisoara, Romania

Herbert De Gersem,Darmstadt, Germany

Jacek Gieras, Rockford, USA

Kay Hameyer, Aachen, Germany

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Dayton, USA

Stefan Kulig, Dortmund, Germany

David A. Lowther, Montreal, Canada

Jacek Marecki, Gdańsk, Poland

Zhuoxiang Ren, Paris, France

José Rodríguez Pérez,Valparaíso, Chile

Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin, Poland

Zbigniew Styczyński, Magdeburg, Germany

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK

Sławomir Wiak, Łódź, Poland

 

Language Editor

Krystyna Guzek

Statistical Editor

Mariusz Barański, Poznan, Poland
Poznan University of Technology

Theme Editors

Jerzy Barglik, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Zbigniew Lubosny, Gdansk, Poland
Professor at Gdańnk University of Technology

Marian Łukaniszyn, Opole, Poland
Professor at Opole University of Technology

Marian Pasko, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Stanisław Piróg, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Henryka Danuta Stryczewska, Lublin, Poland
Professor at Lublin University of Technology

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK
Professor at University of Southampton

Adam Szelag, Warsaw, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Romulad Włodek, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Technical Editor :

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Contact

All contributions should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or the Editorial Office:

Address of the Editorial Office:

Archives of Electrical Engineering
Piotrowo 3A (Room 612X)
60-965 Poznan, Poland
tel: (48-61) 665-26-36
fax: (48-61) 665-23-81
e-mail: aee@put.poznan.pl

Website: www.aee.put.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,

Template:

Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.
Please use Template AEE to prepare your paper.

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The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.,

Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.

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Text:

The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,

Math:

Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) or the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.

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Equations:

Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.
Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,

Conclusions:

A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,

References:

References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
example
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
example
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
example
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

Patent
[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
example
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

Thesis
[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
example
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], [copyright year] © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record]. doi: [DOI number].
example
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller, in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC, 2016, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

Website
[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.,

Proofs:

Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in AEE:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all our articles on the Internet are available for readers free of charge, however it is requested that the authors pay an article-processing charge (reviewing, editing, proofreading, checking for plagiarism, distribution and so on) in order for their articles to be published and made freely available online immediately on publication.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 210 Euro.,

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Open Access policy

Archives of Electrical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archives of Electrical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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