Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection

Content

Archives of Environmental Protection | 2013 | vol. 39 | No 1 |

Abstract

The paper presents results of research concerning operating of five small wastewater treatment plants working in two different technologies: hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plant and constructed wetland. Each object was designed for the treatment of domestic sewage after preliminary mechanical treatment in a septic tank. Hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plants and one of constructed wetland beds were built for treating sewage produced in educational institutions and resort. In the article attention is paid to possibility of exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants for three main indicators of pollution: BOD5, COD, and total suspension. The reduction of these indices is required by the Regulation of the Minister of Environment [14] for wastewater treatment plants with PE < 2000. In addition, the paper presents the effects of wastewater treatment to reduce biogens. The best quality of outflow was reached by outflows from constructed wetland treatment plants. None of the observed objects fulfilled the requirements in terms of allowable concentrations for total suspension. The most effective were objects operating in technology of “constructed wetland”.

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Abstract

The inter-reservoir enrichment phenomenon was exploited to curtail the reservoir eutrophication process. The Plawnowice reservoir (South Poland - Upper Silesia Region) has an area of 225 ha, volume of 29 mln m3, and a depth of 15 meters. According to the monitoring results in the years 1993-1998 the reservoir was qualified as hypereutrophic. Beginning in December 2003 a bottom pipe for hypolimnetic withdrawal was installed. In the period 2004-2010 a negative phosphorous balance was achieved. The discharge load of total phosphorous was in the beginning twice as high as the inflowing. During the first eight years with an inflow of 75 Mg P, the removed load of total phosphorus was 103 Mg P. In effect the net balance was 28 Mg P. The load, in respect to the surface area, of 2.2 to 3.3 gP/m2 per year, was reduced to a negative load of - 0.48 to - 3.3 gP/m2. The hypolimnetic maximum concentration of orthophosphates equal to 1.254 mg P-PO4/dm3 in 2004, was reduced to 0.236 mg P-PO4/dm3 in 2011. The respective factors and rate of eutrophication curtailing, including changes of phosphorus compounds have been discussed. Also changes of pH and visibility of the Secchi disc are presented. It was concluded that the presented method of hypolimnetic withdrawal is a lasting and effective process

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Abstract

The procedure for simultaneous extraction from soil and determination by means of GC-ECD insecticides: aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and herbicide: atrazine was worked out. The proposed GC-ECD technique provides limits of detection in range 12 μg/mL - 18 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, for insecticides and atrazine, respectively. Two different types of extraction: microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) with different solvents were tested to choose the procedure that provides the highest recoveries of analytes and low detection limits, typical for trace analysis (100 ppm or 100 mg/g, IUPAC). On the basis of recoveries and precision both extraction methods were compared. The insecticides recovery from soil samples obtained by UAE were in range 40-85%, coefficient of variation (CV): 1.3-5.0%, whereas for atrazine recovery was below 15% (CV: 8-18%). The most efficient and precise extraction procedure turned out to be MAE with n-hexane: acetone. The recoveries were in range 70-85% for insecticides and 84% for atrazine, CV: 0.4-2.2% and 5.3% for insecticides and atrazine, respectively. The presented MAE-GC-ECD procedure enables extraction and determination of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and atrazine in soil samples with high recoveries, precision and limits of detections in range 6 ng/g - 8 ng/g in the case of insecticides and 1.5 ng/g for atrazine.

The MAE-GC-ECD procedure was applied for the above mentioned pesticides determination in environmental samples. Soils were collected in agricultural as well as rural areas in Poland. In all cases atrazine was determined in concentration range: 0.0187 mg/g - 0.1107 mg/g. Aldrin and dieldrin was detected in soil samples from two locations.

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of study on heavy metals in needles of Pinus sylvestris in selected pine forests in Słowiński National Park. It was evidenced that heavy metal contents (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe) in needles of Pinus sylvestris varied depending on the metal, the age of the needles and the humidity of a forest complex. Variation coefficients of such metals remained at the level of: 13-30% (Zn), 3-6% (Cu), 13-34% (Mn) and 12-30% (Fe) depending on the age of the needles. In the case of Zn, Mn and Fe higher concentrations of researched metal were found in the 2-year-old needles than in 1 year old needles, and in the case of Cu in 1 year old needles than in 2-year-old needles. The increase of zinc concentration found in 1-year-old needles after rainfall sums was (Bw, r = 0.67, p < 0.05, n = 24) and (Bśw, r = 0.39, p < 0.05, n = 24) in 2-year-old needles. The content of the above mentioned metals in needles of dry coniferous forests (Bs), fresh coniferous forests (Bśw) and humid coniferous forests (Bw) of the ground cover constitute the following decreasing series: Mn(323.8) > Fe(103.4) > Zn(65.5) > Cu(5.9).

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Abstract

Thirteen fractions of ambient dust were investigated in Zabrze, a typical urban area in the central part of Upper Silesia (Poland), during a heating season. Fifteen PAH and Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Pb contents of each fraction were determined. The dust was sampled with use of a cascade impactor and chemically analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PANalytical Epsilon 5) and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionisation detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500). The concentrations of PM1 and the PM1-related PAH and elements were much higher than the ones of the coarse dust (PM2.5-10) and the substances contained in it. The concentrations of total PAH and carcinogenic PAH were very high (the concentrations of PM1-, PM2.5-, and PM10-related BaP were 16.08, 19.19, 19.32 ng m-3, respectively). The municipal emission, resulted mainly from hard coal combustion processes, appeared to be the main factor affecting the air quality in Zabrze in winter.

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Abstract

The primary evaluation of the economic losses caused by water pollution in Shanghai in the year 2009 is made by classification approach in order to provide basis for decision of the relative water management policy. The result shows that the portion of water pollution losses in GDP of Shanghai was 2.7%, which was still lower than the average level of whole China despite of the local high population density and the scale of industry, suggesting to some extent the continuous attention in water protection paid by Shanghai government.

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Abstract

The aim of our research was to investigate the genotoxic effects of cobalt chloride and copper chloride in mouse bone marrow cells using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The three different concentrations of cobalt chloride (11.2, 22.5 and 45 mg kg-1) and copper chloride (1.17, 2.35 and 4.70 mg kg-1) were injected intraperitoneally to mice for 24 and 48 hours. It was observed that both of these heavy metals induced a significant increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) at different concentrations in mice for 24 and 48 hours when compared with the control. Furthermore, the significant reduction for the polychromatic erythrocyte/normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/NCE) ratio which is indicative of bone marrow cytotoxicity was observed in bone marrow cells which were treated with copper chloride at all concentrations for 24 and 48 hours. No reduction of the PCE/NCE ratio was observed both 24 and 48 hours after all the doses of cobalt chloride tested as compared to the negative control. These results lead us to the conclusion that copper chloride may have genotoxic and cytotoxic properties due to induction in the frequency of MN and a reduction in PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow cells of mice, whereas cobalt chloride induced only genotoxic effect in mice bone marrow

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Abstract

In this study, the dependence between volumetric exchange rate (n) in an SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) with a modified cycle and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency during the treatment of anaerobic sludge digester supernatant was determined. In the SBR cycle alternating three aeration phases (with limited dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 0.7 mg O2/L) and two mixing phases were applied. The lengths of each aeration and mixing phases were 4 and 5.5 h, respectively. Independently of n, a total removal of ammonium was achieved. However, at n = 0.1 d-1 and n = 0.3 d-1 nitrates were the main product of nitrification, while at n = 0.5 d-1, both nitrates and nitrites occurred in the effluent. Under these operational conditions, despite low COD/N (ca. 4) ratio in the influent, denitrification in activated sludge was observed. A higher denitrification efficiency at n = 0.5 d-1 (51.3%) than at n = 0.1 d-1 (7.8%) indicated that n was a crucial factor influencing SND via nitrite and nitrate in the SBR with a low oxygen concentration in aeration phases.

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Abstract

Filtration process is one of the basic and essential processes in technological systems for treatment of municipal, community and industrial wastewater treatment. Filtration process is a subject of numerous published research and theoretical elaborations. This publication concerns theoretical analysis with basic character, and is a verification of theoretical analysis and physical equations describing process of filtration aided with empirical formulas.

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Abstract

Identification of coefficients determining flow resistance, in particular Manning’s roughness coefficients, is one of the possible inverse problems of mathematical modeling of flow distribution in looped river networks. The paper presents the solution of this problem for the lower Oder River network consisting of 78 branches connected by 62 nodes. Using results of six sets of flow measurements at particular network branches it was demonstrated that the application of iterative algorithm for roughness coefficients identification on the basis of the sensitivity-equation method leads to the explicit solution for all network branches, independent from initial values of identified coefficients.

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Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Czesława Rosik-Dulewska

Editorial Advisory Board
Michał Bodzek
Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Korneliusz Miksch

Assistant Editor
Katarzyna Panz

 

Editorial Board:

President:
Lucjan Pawłowski

Members:
Brian A. Bolto (Australia)
Hubert Bril (France)
Bart Van der Bruggen (Belgium)
Zhihong Cao (China)
Pen-Chi Chiang (R.O.C.)
Wolfgang Frenzel (Germany)
Reinhard F. Hüttl (Germany)
Piotr Kowalik (Poland)
Joanna Kyzioł-Komosińska (Poland)
Rajmund Michalski (Poland)
Anuska Mosquera Corral (Spain)
Takashi Nakamura (Japan)
Józef M. Pacyna (Norway)
Wim H. Rulkens (The Nederlands)
Corrado Sarzanini (Italy)
Hans Martin Seip (Norway)
Jan Siuta (Poland)
Jerzy Sobota (Poland)
Joanna Surmacz-Górska (Poland)
Jadwiga Szczepańska (Poland)
Christopher G. Uchrin (USA)
Tomasz Winnicki (Poland)
Xiaoping Zhu (USA)
Jerzy Zwoździak (Poland) 

Contact

Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences
ul. M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
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Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

Scope

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:

- Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;

- Wastewater treatment and utilization;

- Waste management;

- Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;

- Soil protection and remediation;

- Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;

- Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;

- Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to: aep@ipis.zabrze.pl

Preparation of the manuscript

The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:

• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.

• The manuscript should be written in English.

• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:

– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;

– figures.doc – file containing illustrations with legends;

– tables.doc – file containing tables with legends;

• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferable using Time New Roman font with no less than 12 point. The text should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.

• Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.

• Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.

• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than one author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts - providing the name and publication year in brackets.

• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:

Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.

For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330.

2. Book:

Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.

For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Sudies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:

Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.

For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:

Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).

For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, (http://www.krakow.pios.gov.pl/publikacje/2009/ (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.

Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:

Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.

For example:

Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

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By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article. The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at http://www.editorialsystem.com/aep. Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

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All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline. Reviewers receive a text of the article (without personal data of Authors) and review forms applicable in the journal. In justified cases, reviewers receive additional questions regarding the article. Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.

After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and - if both reviews are positive - asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

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The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction

All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or - in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.

After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

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Archives of Environmental Protection jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Archives of Environmental Protection is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-SA 4.

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