Science and earth science

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2019 | vol. 64 | No 1 |

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Based on data collected during an UCG pilot-scale experiment that took place during 2014 at Wieczorek mine, an active mine located in Upper Silesia (Poland), this research focuses on developing a dynamic fire risk prevention strategy addressing underground coal gasification processes (UCG) within active mines, preventing economic and physical losses derived from fires.

To achieve this goal, the forecasting performance of two different kinds of artificial neural network models (generalized regression and multi-layer feedforward) are studied, in order to forecast the syngas temperature at the georeactor outlet with one hour of anticipation, thus giving enough time to UCG operators to adjust the amount and characteristics of the gasifying agents if necessary.

The same model could be used to avoid undesired drops in the syngas temperature, as low temperature increases precipitation of contaminants reducing the inner diameter of the return pipeline. As a consequence the whole process of UGC might be stopped. Moreover, it could allow maintaining a high temperature that will lead to an increased efficiency, as UCG is a very exothermic process.

Results of this research were compared with the ones obtained by means of Multivariate Adaptative Regression Splines (MARS), a non-parametric regression technique able to model non-linearities that cannot be adequately modelled using other regression methods.

Syngas temperature forecast with one hour of anticipation at the georeactor outlet was achieved successfully, and conclusions clearly state that generalized regression neural networks (GRNN) achieve better forecasts than multi-layer feedforward networks (MLFN) and MARS models.

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Authors and Affiliations

Alicja Krzemień
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The currently applicable legal provisions and also the economic concepts emphasize the importance of circular economy. In this aspect, it is very important to reduce the waste production respectively planning and running a business. Technical research is the key to finding a new applications for waste, in particular disposed on landfilling. Mining and energy industries belong to the biggest producers of waste in Poland. The total share of these two branches in waste production is up to 70% (mining and quarrying 53%; electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supplay 17%). In environment, economy and social aspect, it is very important to develop this waste. The paper presents research on the physico-mechanical properties of the aggregates based on colliery shale supplemented by fly ash (20% - 40% supplement of fly ash). The following tests should be mentioned among performed: particle size distribution, the sand equivalent test, freeze resistance and direct shear tests. Also the chemical properties found in the literature was invoked. The research shows good physico-mechanical properties of the mixes, such as cohesion (44.62 kPa - 68.57 kPa) or internal firiction angle (34.74° - 40.52°). Though low resistance to weathering and a large susceptibility to frost heave (the mass loss after the freezing cycles is 76%) may limit its applicatin in road engineering. The sand equivalent tests were made only for aggregates. Tested materials shows usefulness for earthen structures. However, the research should be supplemented by chemical tests and also observations of the material properties changes as the effect of time. The research on the leachability of chemical pollutants, which will determine the acceptable share of ash in the mix, could be especially significant. The fact that fly ash contains a lot of sulphates and chlorides, which leach into the environment may pose a threat to living organisms.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Blajer
Agnieszka Stopkowicz
Justyna Adamczyk
Marek Cała
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Open pit mining of rock minerals and the affected areas requiring further development are a serious challenge for shaping the positive image of the mining industry among the public. The direction and method of post-mining land reclamation are important for this image, which should take into account various factors describing the mining area, including social preferences. The article presents an example solution – fuzzy system (FSDR) – which supports the selection of the direction of reclamation of post-mining areas created after the termination of operations of open pit gravel and sand natural aggregate mines. The article presents selected factors determining the selection of the direction and possible reclamation variants as input and output data of the fuzzy system. The rules base of the developed system, as well as the mechanisms of inference and defuzzification, were also characterized. The application of the developed system is presented on selected examples.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jadwiga Król-Korczak
Edyta Brzychczy
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In Poland, the economic use of methane from coal seams has been recognized as one of the objectives of the „Energy Policy of Poland until 2030“. In Poland at the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, reconnaissance operations were initiated to collect methane from coal seams using drilling wells and hydraulic fracturing operations.

During these operations, noise emission can have a significant impact on the environment. In order to limit the negative impact of noise, well pads are usually located in undeveloped areas. However, in the European Union, the majority of hard coal deposits from which methane can be extracted are located in areas with a high population density.

This article presents the results of noise measurements carried out during hydraulic fracturing operations of coal seams and the results of calculations of the equivalent sound level during the daytime. Based on the analysis of noise emission, some recommendations are given regarding the location of planned new well pads in highly urbanized areas in order to meet the applicable standards of noise protection.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Siemek
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This article presents the results of laboratory tests of the physical and mechanical properties of various types of sandstone selected from ten quarries from Carpathian flysch. The parameters were used to evaluate the quality of the sandstone and its suitability for use as armourstone in accordance with applicable standards and quality guidelines. The requirements of the BN-79/8952-31, EN 13383-1:2003 and the CIRIA, CUR, CETMEF (2007) standards were compared. Sandstone can display a large variability of parameters depending on its origin. This, in turn, results in a varying degree of its susceptibility to the destructive effects of water and climate.

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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Hydzik-Wiśniewska
Agnieszka Pękala
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The paper presents the implementation of the method of own residual magnetic field to identify damages occurring in a steel rope. A special measuring head with 4 residual magnetic field sensors, spaced evenly every 90 degrees, was used. The measuring head was also equipped with a path or a time sensor. The measurement consists in recording normal and tangential components of the residual magnetic field and their gradients. This method has a number of advantages with regard to classic magnetic methods. It does not require special magnetisation of the rope or its special preparation for testing. Validation of the obtained test results of this rope was conducted by the classic MTR method and a very good compliance in the detection of damage was demonstrated. It was found that the strong magnetisation used in the MTR method does not affect the detection of damage to the rope using the residual magnetic field method.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Juraszek
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In the longwall exploitation system, the main gates are subject of the most intensive movements of the rock mass, where the proximity of the excavation front is a key factor. The paper presents the results of a research on the constants mb and s of Hoek-Brown failure criterion for the rocks surrounding the gallery: shale, sandy shale, coal and medium-grained sandstone, in relation to the distance to longwall face. The research comprised numerical modeling based on convergence monitoring records. The convergence measurements were carried out on three stations in a selected maingate in a coal mine from Upper Silesia Coal Basin near Jastrzębie-Zdrój, concurrently with changing distance to the longwall face. The measured were the width, the height and the heave of the floor of the gate. The measurements showed that the convergence at the longwall-maingate crossing was 1.5-3 times greater than in the locations much further from the longwall face. It was demonstrated that this effect was due to continuously changing properties of the rock-mass surrounding the gallery that can be expressed as decreasing empirical parameters mb i s of Hoek-Brown’s criterion. These parameters are decreasing exponentially together with the distance to the longwall face The consistency between the theoretical and factual curve varies between 70% to 98%. The change of each of the parameters can be described by general equation P = a· exp(–b·d), where a, b are constants, and d is the distance to the excavation face. The authors highlight that during the measurements period the horizontal stress was 1.45 to 1.61 times greater than the concurrent vertical stress. The so high horizontal stress causes heave of unsupported gallery floor which is commonly observed in the mines in Silesia.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Małkowski
Łukasz Ostrowski
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In this study, emulsified kerosene was investigated to improve the flotation performance of ultrafine coal. For this purpose, NP-10 surfactant was used to form the emulsified kerosene. Results showed that the emulsified kerosene increased the recovery of ultrafine coal compared to kerosene. This study also revealed the effect of independent variables (emulsified collector dosage (ECD), frother dosage (FD) and impeller speed (IS)) on the responses (concentrate yield (γC %), concentrate ash content ( %) and combustible matter recovery (ε %)) based on Random Forest (RF) model and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed models for γC %, % and ε% showed satisfactory results with R2. The optimal values of three test variables were computed as ECD = 330.39 g/t, FD = 75.50 g/t and IS = 1644 rpm by using GA. Responses at these experimental optimal conditions were γC % = 58.51%,  % = 21.7% and ε % = 82.83%. The results indicated that GA was a beneficial method to obtain the best values of the operating parameters. According to results obtained from optimal flotation conditions, kerosene consumption was reduced at the rate of about 20% with using the emulsified kerosene.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ozcan Oney
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Leak detection in transmission pipelines is important for safe operation of pipelines. The probability of leaks may be occurred at any time and location, therefore pipeline leak detection systems play a key role in minimization of the occurrence of leaks probability and their impacts. During the operation of the network there are various accidents or intentional actions that lead to leaks of gas pipelines. For each network failure, a quick reaction is needed before it causes more damage. Methods that are used to detect such network failures are three-staged-: early identification of leakage, an accurate indication of its location and determine the amount of lost fluid. Methods for leak detection can be divided into two main groups: external methods (hardware) and internal methods (software). External leak detection methods require additional, often expensive equipment mounted on the network, or use systems that could display only local damage on the pipeline. The alternative are the internal methods which use available network measurements and signalling gas leakage signal based on the mathematical models of the gas flow. In this paper, a new method of leak detection based on a mathematical model of gas flow in a transient state has been proposed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Amanda Kwestarz
Andrzej Janusz Osiadacz
Łukasz Kotyński
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Reconciliation between two copper ore mines transferred ore from one mine to another for processing in enrichment plants generated the need to regularly study the amount and composition of the ore on the conveyor connecting these two mines. To ensure the objectivity of the study, taking composite samples and their analysis was entrusted to a specialized outside laboratory. However, the managing staff of both mines still have doubts whether sampling results reflect correctly content of transported ore especially when the fed is highly variable. In order to investigate how the relatively low sampling rate affects the accuracy and precision of the measurement, the article investigates the hypothetical situation on the linking conveyor with the ore having extremely differentiated mineralization: 80% of almost barren rock (below 0.7% Cu) and 20% of the richly mineralized shale (around 10% Cu). Such ore occurs in some areas of the mine, from which it is fed onto a connecting conveyor. Through simulation techniques it was examined how the frequency of sampling can influence the distribution of the pooled sample results. It turned out that for 16 randomly selected samples in the following 15 minutes time intervals of a working shift, the spread of results around the simulated value is very large. A satisfactory accuracy level for the estimations of mean Cu content in the transported ore is achieved when the samples are collected at 30-second intervals. Only with sampling frequency close to on-line scanner parameters the probability of obtaining estimations with deviation exceeding 10% drops to the level of 2%. In the case of extremely differentiated ore doubts about confidence in the described measurements are fully confirmed, because with over 50% probability a single measurement could be deviated by 50% up and down from the true value.

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Authors and Affiliations

Leszek Jurdziak
Witold Kawalec
Robert Król
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In the Carboniferous rock mass of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, large changes in the geomechanical conditions often occur over relatively short distances. These conditions relate to rock properties that are primarily responsible for the occurrence of geodynamic phenomena in the rock mass. The main factor influencing the manifestation of these phenomena is tectonic stress developed during Variscan and subsequent Alpine orogenesis. This stress contributed to creating tectonic structures in the Carboniferous formations and influenced the properties of the rocks themselves and the rock mass they form. As a result of the action of the stresses, compaction zones (main stresses were compressive) were formed, along with zones in which one of the main stresses was tensile. For the compaction zones in the Carboniferous rocks, the following geomechanical parameters have been calculated: uniaxial compressive strength, Young’s modulus and post-critical modulus. The local stress field was determined according to the focal mechanism in selected areas (Main and Bytom troughs) to characterize changes in geomechanical properties of the rocks that are responsible for high-energy tremors (E ≥ 106 J, ML ≥ 2.2).

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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Dubiński
Krystyna Stec
Mirosława Bukowska
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In this paper, the different mechanical behaviors of layered rocks with different bedding angles during uniaxial compression tests are studied. Numerical simulation models of layered rock are validated based on laboratory tests, and uniaxial compression tests are conducted by using Particle Flow Code (PFC). Using these simulations, the uniaxial compressive strength, failure patterns, development of micro-cracks, and displacement of meso particles are analyzed. When the bedding angle is similar to the failure angle, the macro failure planes develop directly along the beddings, the bedding behavior dictates the behavior of the layered rock, reducing the compressive strength.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nan Yao
Yi-Cheng Ye
Bin Hu
Wei-Qi Wang
Qi-Hu Wang
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Subsidence process in the rock mass disturbed by mining can be complicated and can be faster or slower depending on the geological structure and physical and mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in exploitation geometry, and changes in the rate of exploitation. The most frequently, the subsidence process develops over years in a way that is difficult to observe over a short period (days). It has been proven in practice of coal mines in Poland that Knothe’s model describes subsidence process with high accuracy. It is based on treating the rock mass as a stochastic medium and describing subsidence with stochastic equations.

It can be assumed that, the complicated stress field as a result of mining activities induce a series of displacements of different sizes in rock mass. The inelastic deformation in rock mass is accompanied by a microseismicity that can be recorded and processed. We assumed that seismic noise with weak seismic events is a low-energy part of the microseismicity. We proposed an analytical solution to examine the distribution of the energy of the seismic noise during subsidence process development based on Knothe’s model. In general a qualitative method of subsidence process assessment by the registration of the seismic noise was described.

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Authors and Affiliations

Henryk Marcak
Zenon Pilecki
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Steel arch-rectangular support has a wide range of applications in Polish coal mines due to its asymmetrical shape. The frame has an arched outline on one side of the side wall, while on the opposite side it is rectangular. As a result, the support is ideal for securing set up room and recovery room. It can also be successfully used to secure three-way intersections of underground workings. To a large extent, however, the importance of these advantages is diminished by relatively low load-bearing parameters, resulting from a partially straight canopy, as well as the asymmetrical distribution of the load acting on the support in underground conditions. In order to ensure the proper and optimal operation of such frames, in addition to the standard requirements for roof supports, additional conditions must be met. The basic requirement is to support the end of the canopy on the corner of the excavation. This article presents examples of arch-rectangular supports, their applications as well as laboratory tests and strength analysis of the frames and its elements. These tests allowed the requirements regarding the construction of the frame, the selection of the support and the conditions of building in the excavation to be specified.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Rotkegel
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Fresh bituminous coal was stored in air-/water-oxidation conditions after 20 and 80 days, respectively. FTIR results show that the Hydrophilicity Index (HI) value of air-oxidized coal is higher than that of water-oxidized coal. SEM results show that the surface roughness of water-oxidized coal is higher than that of air-oxidized coal and water-oxidized coal surface has more holes and chips than air-oxidized coal surface. Flotation results show that the floatability of water-oxidized coal is worse than that of air-oxidized coal. The flotation performance of both air-/water-oxidized coals can be improved at larger collector dosages. The air-oxidation processes changed the HI value of coal greater than the water-oxidation processes while the water-oxidation processes changed the surface morphology of coal greater than the air-oxidation processes. Both the changes in HI value and surface roughness of coal determine the flotation behavior of oxidized coal. The changes in the surface morphology of coal particles after oxidation processes may be the primary factor determining the floatability of coal particles while the changes in the HI value of coal particles may be the inferior factor.

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Authors and Affiliations

Baofeng Wen
Wencheng Xia
Jovica M. Sokolovic

Editorial office


Prof. Antoni Tajduś, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow

Associate Editor

Prof. Jakub Siemek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland

Section Editors

Dr Katarzyna Cyran, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Prof. Wacław Dziurzyński, Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland

Associate prof. Jerzy Krawczyk, Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences

Associate prof. Krzysztof Tajduś, Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Editorial board

Prof. Piotr Czaja, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland

Prof. Józef Dubiński, Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland

Prof. Stanisław Nagy, Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie

Prof. Stanisław Prusek, Central Mining Institute, Katowice

Prof. Tadeusz Słomka, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow

Prof. Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow

Prof. Wacław Trutwin, Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow

Prof. Andrew K. Wojtanowicz, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA

Chairman of International Advisory Board

Prof. Marek Cała, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland

Members of International Advisory Board

Prof. Leandro R. Alejano, Universidad de Vigo, Spain

Prof. Kashy Aminian, West Virginia University, USA

Prof. Timothy Carr, West Virginia University, USA

Prof. Eleonora Widzyk-Capehart, University of Chile, Chile

Prof. Pedro Riesgo Fernández, University of Oviedo, Spain

Prof. Mihaly Dobróka, University of Miskolc, Hungary

Prof. Sevket Durucan, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Prof. Aidarkhan Kaltayev, al-Frabi Kazakh State University, Almaty Kazachstan

Prof. Evgeny I. Križanivskij, National Oil and Gas University of Ukraine, Ivanofrankovsk, Ukraine

Prof. Ian Lowndes, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Prof. Henryk Marcak, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow

Prof. Marian Marschalko, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava,Czech Republic

Prof. Stefan Miska, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, USA

Prof. Pierpaolo Oreste, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Prof. Durga Charan Panigrahi, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India

Prof. Tadeusz Patzek, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

Prof. Lucjan Pawłowski, University of Technology, Lublin

Prof. Genadyi G. Pivnyak, National Mining University of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk, Ukraine

Prof. Pekka Särkkä, Helsinki University of Technology Helsinki, Finland

Prof. Anton Sroka, Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow

Prof. Stanisław Stryczek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow

Prof. Vlad Ulmanu, University Petroleum-Gas of Ploiesti, Romania

Prof. Jann Rune Ursin, University of Stavanger, Norway

Prof. Jan Wachowicz, Central Mining Institute, Katowice

Prof. Yaroslavl Vasyuchkov, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Prof. Isik Yilmaz, Cumhuriyet University Sivas, Turkey


Mrs. Marta Bitner

Instytut Mechaniki Górotworu PAN

ul. Reymonta 27, 30-059 Kraków

Phone: +48 12 637 62 00 w. 58


Instructions for authors

General information

It is essential for us that authors write and prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions and specifications listed below. Therefore, authors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission.

Archives of Mining Sciences (AMS) is concerned with original research, new developments and case studies in all fields of mining sciences which include:

- mining technologies,

- stability of mine workings,

- rock mechanics,

- geotechnical engineering and tunnelling,

- mineral processing,

- mining and engineering geology,

- mining geophysics,

- mining geodesy

- ventilation systems,

- environmental protection in mining,

- economical aspects in mining,

- mining machine science.

Papers are welcomed on all relevant topics and especially on theoretical developments, analytical methods, numerical methods, rock testing, site investigation, and case studies.

AMS publishes research and review articles, technical notes.

Papers suitable for publication in AMS are those which:

- contain original work - the main result is not published elsewhere neither by the authors nor somebody else, and is not currently under consideration for publication in any other journal,

- are focused on the core aims and scope of the journal,

- are clearly and correctly written in English.

Authors are required to contribute to the cost of publication – publication charge 1000 PLN or 250 Euro. There is no submission charge.

Electronic submission:

All submissions must be made electronically via Editorial System


The papers should be written in English.

Length of paper

The research and review articles may not exceed 16 typewritten pages, technical notes -10 pages, format A4 including figures and tables.


The initial submission should be sent as Microsoft World (Arial, 12 points, line spacing - 1,5) or pdf file with all drawings, pictures and tables placed in the text.

After acceptance the text (in Microsoft Word), figures and tables should be sent as separate files.

Layout of the manuscript

First and last name(s) of the author(s), title of the article, abstract, keywords, methodology and introduction to the topics, results, conclusions, acknowledgements and references. The subtitles should conform to the decimal system of numbering.


The abstract should briefly summarize the most important results reported in the paper (up to 200 words).

Keywords.4-6 keywords


Formulae should be prepared with Microsoft Equation, written clearly with distinct notation of upper and lower indices and parentheses, maintaining an uniform numbering.


Tables should be prepared as separate file in Microsoft World format.


If possible, the figures should be prepared with a vector graphics software (cdr, wmf, al or dxf formats) or as eps, jpg, bmp (figures width no greater than 13.5 cm). Use Arial font for the comments on drawings in size 6-10 points. The photographs should be converted to high resolution scans in *.jpg or *.tiff format. Figures should be submitted as separate files.


A bibliography without numbering, arranged alphabetically according to the author’s last name, should include all positions referring in the text. In case of more than one article from the same year, the articles should be differentiated as follows: 1985a, 1985b, etc. The following order is required: last name and initials of all co-authors, year, title, type of publications, (journal, conference material, collection of monograph articles, unpublished texts) with the page numbers used.

Quoting references

Name(s) of the author(s) should be provided in parentheses. e.g.: (Brandt, 1993), (Crosdale & Beamish, 1994). (Dziurzynski et al., 1990) in the case of one, two or more than two authors, respectively. If the name(s) of the author(s) is included in the text, then the reference should be cited as follows e.g.: „According to Brandt (1993)...”

Example of bibliography.

Brandt, J., 1993. Neuere Erkentnisse auf dem Gebiet der Gasausbruchprognose. Glückauf Forschungshefte 54, 5, 228-233.

Crosdale, P. J., Beamish, B.B., 1994. Methane sorption studies at South Bulli (NSW) & Central (QLD) collieries using a high-pressure microbalance. 28 Newcastle Symposium on „Advances in the study of Sydney Basin”, Newcastle, NSW, Australia, 15-17 April, 118-125.

Dziurzynski, W., Trutwin W., Tracz J., 1990. Symulacja komputerowa przepływu powietrza i gazów powyrzutowych w sieci wentylacyjnej kopalni. J. Litwiniszyn (Ed.), Górotwór jako ośrodek wielofazowy; Wyrzuty skalno-gazowe. Wydawnictwo AGH, Kraków, Vol. II, 743-758.

Lama R. D., Bodziony, J., 1996. Outbursts of gas, coal and rock in underground mines. Publisher Lama & Associates, 130 Brokers Road, Mt. Pleasant, NSW 2519, Australia.

Nekrasovski, Ya. E., 1951. Razrabotka plastov podverzhennykh vnezapnym vybrosam ugla i gaza. Ugletekhizdat, Moskva.

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