Applied sciences

Archives of Acoustics

Content

Archives of Acoustics | 2012 | vol. 37 | No 3 |

Abstract

Ultrasound is used for breast cancer detection as a technique complementary to mammography, the standard screening method. Current practice is based on reflectivity images obtained with conventional instruments by an operator who positions the ultrasonic transducer by hand over the patient’s body. It is a non-ionizing radiation, pain-free and not expensive technique that provides a higher contrast than mammography to discriminate among fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, especially for dense breast tissue. However, results are quite dependent on the operator’s skills, images are difficult to reproduce, and state-of-the-art instruments have a limited resolution and contrast to show micro-calcifications and to discriminate between lesions and the surrounding tissue. In spite of their advantages, these factors have precluded the use of ultrasound for screening.

This work approaches the ultrasound-based early detection of breast cancer with a different concept. A ring array with many elements to cover 360◦ around a hanging breast allows obtaining repeatable and operator-independent coronal slice images. Such an arrangement is well suited for multi-modal imaging that includes reflectivity, compounded, tomography, and phase coherence images for increased specificity in breast cancer detection. Preliminary work carried out with a mechanical emulation of the ring array and a standard breast phantom shows a high resolution and contrast, with an artifact-free capability provided by phase coherence processing.

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Abstract

The objective of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of the Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements in determining the critical stresses during four-point bending of mortar beams. Within the measuring procedure the parameter σcr/σ300 was calculated and analysed. Additionally, the influence of cement replacement by high calcium fly ash (HCFA) on the process of crack healing was discussed. Mortar beams with different content of HCFA and reinforced by steel microfibres were prepared for tests. After curing in standard conditions the beams were subjected to four-point bending test in order to introduce the pre-cracking. Thereafter the beams were cured in the lime water and loaded after 56 and 112 days in the same way as for the first time. Additionally the microstructure of mortars was studied in a stereo optical microscope as well in an electron scanning microscope including the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results of microstructural characterization of mortar containing HCFA from lignite combustion are presented. The applied load level slightly exceeded the critical stress, producing intense crack growth processes however did not significant affected the load capacity of the beams. During the consecutive loading the decreasing tendency of σcr/σ300 ratio was noted. The obtained results confirm that the latter parameter can be applied as a measure of the composite degradation level for the elements carrying the repeated loads of amplitude close to the critical stress of the structure and also that the cement replacement with HCFA influences the process of crack healing.

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Abstract

In many therapeutic applications of a pulsed focused ultrasound with various intensities the finite- amplitude acoustic waves propagate in water before penetrating into tissues and their local heating. Water is used as the matching, cooling and harmonics generating medium. In order to design ultrasonic probes for various therapeutic applications based on the local tissue heating induced in selected organs as well as to plan ultrasonic regimes of treatment a knowledge of pressure variations in pulsed focused nonlinear acoustic beams produced in layered media is necessary. The main objective of this work was to verify experimentally the applicability of the recently developed numerical model based on the Time- Averaged Wave Envelope (TAWE) approach (Wójcik et al., 2006) as an effective research tool for predicting the pulsed focused nonlinear fields produced in two-layer media comprising of water and tested materials (with attenuation arbitrarily dependent on frequency) by clinically relevant axially-symmetric therapeutic sources. First, the model was verified in water as a reference medium with known linear and nonlinear acoustic properties. The measurements in water were carried out at a 25◦C temperature using a 2.25 MHz circular focused (f/3.0) transducer with an effective diameter of 29 mm. The measurement results obtained for 8-cycle tone bursts with three different initial pressure amplitudes varied between 37 kPa and 113 kPa were compared with the numerical predictions obtained for the source boundary condition parameters determined experimentally. The comparison of the experimental results with those simulated numerically has shown that the model based on the TAWE approach predicts well both the spatial-peak and spatial-spectral pressure variations in the pulsed focused nonlinear beams produced by the transducer used in water for all excitation levels complying with the condition corresponding to weak or moderate source-pressure levels. Quantitative analysis of the simulated nonlinear beams from circular transducers with ka ≫ 1 allowed to show that the axial distance at which sudden accretion of the 2nd or higher harmonics amplitude appears is specific for this transducer regardless of the excitation level providing weak to moderate nonlinear fields. For the transducer used, the axial distance at which the 2nd harmonics amplitude suddenly begins to grow was found to be equal to 60 mm. Then, the model was verified experimentally for two-layer parallel media comprising of a 60-mm water layer and a 60-mm layer of 1.3-butanediol (99%, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Steinheim, Germany). This medium was selected because of its tissue-mimicking acoustic properties and known nonlinearity parameter B/A. The measurements of both, the peak- and harmonic-pressure variations in the pulsed nonlinear acoustic beams produced in two-layer media (water/1.3-butanediol) were performed for the same source boundary conditions as in water. The measurement results were compared with those simulated numerically. The good agreement between the measured data and numerical calculations has shown that the model based on the TAWE approach is well suited to predict both the peak and harmonic pressure variations in the pulsed focused nonlinear sound beams produced in layered media by clinically relevant therapeutic sources. Finally, the pulsed focused nonlinear fields from the transducer used in two-layer media: water/castor oil, water/silicone oil (Dow Corning Ltd., Coventry, UK), water/human brain and water/pig liver were predicted for various values of the nonlinearity parameter of tested media.

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Abstract

In this study, an artificial neural network application was performed to tell if 18 plates of the same material in different shapes and sizes were cracked or not. The cracks in the cracked plates were of different depth and sizes and were non-identical deformations. This ANN model was developed to detect whether the plates under test are cracked or not, when four plates have been selected randomly from among a total of 18 ones. The ANN model used in the study is a model uniquely tailored for this study, but it can be applied to all systems by changing the weight values and without changing the architecture of the model. The developed model was tested using experimental data conducted with 18 plates and the results obtained mainly correspond to this particular case. But the algorithm can be easily generalized for an arbitrary number of items.

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Abstract

The aim of the paper is a theoretical analysis of propagation of high-intensity acoustic waves throughout a bubble layer. A simple model in the form of a layer with uniformly distributed mono-size spherical bubbles is considered. The mathematical model of the pressure wave’s propagation in a bubbly liquid layer is constructed using the linear non-dissipative wave equation and assuming that oscillations of a single bubble satisfy the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The models of the phase sound speed, changes of resonant frequency of bubbles and damping coefficients in a bubbly liquid are compared and discussed. The relations between transmitted and reflected waves and their second harmonic amplitudes are analyzed. A numerical analysis is carried out for different environmental parameters such as layer thicknesses and values of the volume fraction as well as for different parameters of generated signals. Examples of results of the numerical modeling are presented.

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Abstract

Noise-like binary sequences combined with signals with linear frequency modulation might be successfully used to increase the reliability of the recognition of both probe and communication signals in the presence of natural and artificial interference. To identify such formed sequences the usage of the two-step matched filtering was suggested and the probabilistic model of the recognition of noise-like code sequences transferred by LFM signals was developed.

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Abstract

This paper presents the beam tracing with refraction method, developed to examine the possibility of creating the beam tracing simulation of sound propagation in environments with piecewise non- homogenous media. The beam tracing with refraction method (BTR) is developed as an adaptive beam tracing method that simulates not only the reflection but also the refraction of sound. The scattering and the diffraction of sound are not simulated. The BTR employs 2D and 3D topology in order to efficiently simulate scenes containing non-convex media. After the beam tracing is done all beams are stored in a beam tree and kept in the computer memory. The level of sound intensity at the beginning of each beam is also memorized. This beam data structure enables fast recalculation of results for stationary source and geometry. The BTR was compared with two commercial ray tracing simulations, to check the speed of BTR algorithms. This comparison demonstrated that the BTR has a performance similar to state-of- the-art room-acoustics simulations. To check the ability to simulate refraction, the BTR was compared with a commercial Finite Elements Method (FEM) simulation. In this comparison the BTR simulated the focusing of the ultrasound with an acoustic lens, with good accuracy and excellent performance.

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Abstract

Fabric covering is often used by designers, as it can easily mask acoustic structures that do not match an interior. However, in the case of sound diffusers based on change in the phase of the reflected wave, the use of fabric covering is not without its effect on acoustics. It reduces the effectiveness of these structures and raises acoustic absorption. In the paper, the authors analyzed the acoustical properties of a selected fabric used to cover sound diffusers. Sound absorption and scattering coefficients for a system composed of sound diffusers and a fabric situated at different distances d were measured. The results were compared to the sound absorption predicted on the basis of Kuttruff’s and Mechel’s theoretical models. Analysis of the results indicates that the fabric has a significant influence on the system’s acoustic parameters. It is also observed, that fabric applied directly on a phase grating diffuser, produces higher absorption than when it is at some distance from it.

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Abstract

There are typically two systems in use for sound reinforcement in open areas: the central, “wall of sound” system with speakers localized at the sides of the stage, and the zone system, in which additional speakers are introduced to obtain a uniform sound pressure level throughout the area of listening. In the past two decades the line array systems gained great popularity. The main purpose of their use is to obtain a uniformly distributed sound level throughout the listening area in order to achieve good speech intelligibility. The present paper aims to present an alternative and original method of sound reinforcement in open areas which is in contrast to the above solutions. This new method allows achieving a uniformly distributed sound pressure and good speech intelligibility in the area of interest, and also allows to gain spatial sound impression that accompanies sound reproduction in concert halls. Another advantage of the proposed system is the reduction of the sound level outside the area of interest, i.e. reduction of the noise level outside the area of listening.

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Abstract

In recent years we have interviewed members of the audience after musical performances and asked them to evaluate the acoustics of the concert halls. A group of ‘music lovers’ (with a high level of musical training and experience) and ‘acousticians’ (with a wide knowledge of the physical characteristics of sound transmission) also attended each performance and answered the same questions as the general public. This group thereby served as a control group when evaluating surveys of the general public. In this paper, the results obtained when analyzing these control group surveys are presented. This analysis shows that a common vocabulary exists between music lovers and acousticians when rating a hall, although the grouping of the questions for each factor depends on the training of the respondents.

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Abstract

IR spectroscopy, density and ultrasonic velocity measurements have been carried out for aluminum lithium phosphate glasses with and without MoO3. The observed changes in the FTIR spectra of the glasses were related to the modifier/former role of molybdenum ions. The results revealed that the density increases with increasing MoO<sub>3</sub> content, which was attributed to the increase in the compactness and packing of the glass network. The ultrasonic data were analyzed in terms of creation of new bonds of MoO<sub>3</sub> attached to phosphate units. The new bonds increased the average crosslink density and the number of network bonds per unit volume along with a strengthening of the different modes of vibrations which in its turn increased the ultrasonic velocity, the rigidity and hence the elastic moduli of the glasses.

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Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of acoustic correction in historic opera theatres with the auditorium layout in the form of a horseshoe with deep underbalcony cavities limited with a semicircular wall surface. Both geometry of the cavities and excessive sound absorption determine acoustic phenomena registered in this area of the hall. The problem has been observed in the Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Lviv, Ukraine, where acoustic tests were carried out, simulation calculations performed, and finally a diffusion panel worked out designed for the rear wall of the underbalcony space. Acoustic measurements carried out after installation of the diffusers revealed favourable changes in the sound strength factor G within the range of medium and high frequencies in the underbalcony and auditorium centre area. By replacing textile tapestry with diffusion panels, a significant reduction of sound absorption was achieved for the frequency range above 1 kHz and an increase of uniformity of acoustic parameters registered in the hall. The method presented in the paper can be applied in historic halls of the similar type as well as contemporary rooms where there is a need for correction of acoustic flaws related to sound focusing or the echo effect.

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Abstract

The issue of auditory segregation of simultaneous sound sources has been addressed in speech research but was given less attention in musical acoustics. In perception of concurrent speech, or speech with noise, the operation of time-frequency masking was often used as a research tool. In this work, an ex- tension of time-frequency masking, leading to the removal of spectro-temporal overlap between sound sources, was applied to musical instruments playing together. The perception of the original mixture was compared with the perception of the same mixture with all spectral overlap electronically removed. Ex- periments differed in the method of listening (headphones or a loudspeaker), sets of instruments mixed, and populations of participants. The main findings were: (i) in one of the experimental conditions the removal of spectro-temporal overlap was imperceptible, (ii) perception of the effect increased when removal of spectro-temporal overlap was performed in larger time-frequency regions rather than in small ones, (iii) perception of the effect decreased in loudspeaker listening. The results support both the multiple looks hypothesis and the “glimpsing” hypothesis known from speech perception.

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Abstract

Psychoacoustics is traditionally based on a world model that assumes a physical world existing independently of any observer - the so-called objective world. Being exposed to this world, an observer is impinged upon by a variety of stimuli reaching his/her sensory organs. These stimuli, if physiologically adequate, may cause biological transduction and signal processing in the sensory organs and its afferent pathways in such a way that finally a specific excitation of the cortex takes place, which results in sen-sations to appear in the observer’s perceptual world. The sensations are understood as being subjective, since they require an observer to exist. This world model - also known as (objectivistic) realism - reaches its limits when it comes to explaining more complex phenomena of perception. Thereupon, in this paper, an alternative world model is emphasized and applied to psychoacoustics, namely the perceptionist’s model. Like realism, perceptionism has a long tradition in epistemology. It appears to be suitable to improve our understanding of perceptual organization.

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Abstract

The Scientific and Organizing Committees of 59th Open Seminar on Acoustics would like to present the abstracts of papers submitted for this conference. The Open Seminar on Acoustics (OSA) is an annual conference, the largest in the country which has been bringing Polish acousticians together for nearly sixty years. It is organized sequentially by different departments of Polish Acoustical Society (PTA) – in 2012 by the Poznań Division. The conference presents all sections of acoustics, such as: physical acoustics, technical acoustics, environmental acoustics, speech acoustics, hearing acoustics, musical acoustics, architectural acoustics, etc. The aim of the conference is to exchange scientific experience in the field of acoustics, promote science and integrate specialists from various fields.

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Abstract

The NTAV/SPA 2012 conference was held on 27–29th September 2012 and was organized by the Institute of Electronics, Lodz University of Technology (www.eletel.p.lodz.pl) with the support of the IEEE Polish Section Region 8, Polish Section of the Audio Engineering Society, Department of Acoustics, Wroclaw University of Technology and the Division of Signal Processing and Electronic Systems, Poznan University of Technology.

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Abstract

Professor Aleksander Opilski has passed away on 20 April 2012.

Aleksander Opilski was born on 31 August 1931 in Zagórze in the then Śląskie Voivodship. He underwent his 1st level studies in the years 1950–1953 at the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. His 2nd level academic education was completed at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań from which he graduated in 1958 as a Master of Science in Physics.

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Editorial office

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
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• Izabela Ewa Mika

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