Nauki Techniczne

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

Zawartość

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2019 | 67 | No. 2 |

Abstrakt

Tungsten heavy alloys comprising tungsten, nickel and ferrous were modified, where molybdenum was added in varying weight proportions keeping the ratio of Ni: Fe (8:2) constant. The powders were mixed in a high-energy ball mill and were further fabricated using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method at a peak temperature of 1000°C with heating rate of 100°C/min. The details of the microstructure and mechanical properties of these various alloy compositions were studied. With the increasing weight composition of the Mo in the alloy, the relative density of the alloy increased with a significant improvement in all the mechanical properties. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness improved significantly with increase in the proportion of Mo; however, a reduction in elongation percentage was observed. The maximum strength of 1250 MPa UTS was observed in the alloy with a Mo proportion of 24%. The heavy alloy unmixed with Mo has shown distinct white and grey regions, where white (W) grain is due to tungsten and grey region is a combinatorial effect of Ni and Fe. Upon addition of Mo, the white and gray phase differences started to minimize resulting in deep gray and black ‘C’-phase structures because of homogenization of the alloy. The main fracture mode found during this investigation in the alloys was inter-granular mode.

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Using methods of physical material studies (scanning electron microscopy and micro X-ray spectral analysis), a study was carried out with focus on alteration of structure and phase composition in surface layers of Al-Si alloy (silumin АК10М2N) treated in electroexplosive alloying with a multiphase plasma jet formed in the process of aluminum foil explosion and carrying particles of Y2O3 weighted powder portion. It was revealed that a porous surface layer with non-homogeneously distributed alloying elements (silicon, yttrium) in it is formed in any conditions of electroexplosive alloying of silumin. Thickness of the modified layer is different, varying 50 to 160 µm, depending on the zone to be examined. The modified surface consists basically of Al, Si and Y. Yttrium in the modified layer is thought to be an indirect evidence of better physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer in comparison with the base material.

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The subject of the study was the production and characterization of three ceramic-metal graded composites, which differed in addition of the metallic phase. The following composites systems were investigated: Al2O3-Mo, Al2O3-Cu, Al2O3-W. Composites were produced by centrifugal slip casting method. This technique combines the classic casting of the slurry into porous molds with the action of centrifugal force. As a result, sleeve-shaped shapes with a metallic phase gradient were obtained. X-ray phase analysis have not revealed new phases in the produced composites. The type of metallic phase and its distribution in the ceramic matrix influenced the hardness of the produced composites.

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Abstrakt

The AlMg10 aluminum alloy reinforced with SiC particles was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP). The composite was made by mechanical mixing and gravity casting. The mass fraction of SiC particles in the composite was about 10%. Evaluation of the effects of FSP treatment was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and hardness measurement. It was found that the inhomogeneous distribution of SiC particles and their agglomeration, which were observable in the cast composite, were completely eliminated after FSP modification. The treatment was also accompanied by homogenisation of the material in the mixing zone as well as fragmentation of both the matrix grain of the composite and SiC particles. In the case of SiC particles, a change in their shape was also observed. In the as-cast composite, particles with dimensions from 30 to 60 µm and a sharp-edged polyhedral shape prevailed, while in the material subjected to friction treatment, particles with dimensions from 20 to 40 µm and a more equiangular shape prevailed. Pores and other material discontinuities occurring frequently in the as-cast composite were completely eliminated after friction modification. The recorded changes in the microstructure of the material were accompanied by an increase in the hardness of the composite by nearly 35%. The conducted investigations have shown that FSP modification of the AlMg10/SiC composite made by the casting method leads to favorable microstructural changes in the surface layer and may be an alternative solution to other methods and technologies used in surface engineering.

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Abstrakt

Constantly developing nanotechnology provides the possibility of manufacturing nanostructured composites with a polymer matrix doped with ceramic nanoparticles, including ZnO. A specific feature of polymers, i.e. ceramic composite materials, is an amelioration in physical properties for polymer matrix and reinforcement. The aim of the paper was to produce thin fibrous composite mats, reinforced with ZnO nanoparticles and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix obtained by means of the electrospinning process and then examining the influence of the strength of the reinforcement on the morphology and optical properties of the composite nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the fibrous mats was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). UV –Vis spectroscopy allowed to examine the impact of zinc oxide on the optical properties of PVP/ZnO nanofibers and to investigate the width of the energy gap.

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Compared with the robots, humans can learn to perform various contact tasks in unstructured environments by modulating arm impedance characteristics. In this article, we consider endowing this compliant ability to the industrial robots to effectively learn to perform repetitive force-sensitive tasks. Current learning impedance control methods usually suffer from inefficiency. This paper establishes an efficient variable impedance control method. To improve the learning efficiency, we employ the probabilistic Gaussian process model as the transition dynamics of the system for internal simulation, permitting long-term inference and planning in a Bayesian manner. Then, the optimal impedance regulation strategy is searched using a model-based reinforcement learning algorithm. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are verified through force control tasks using a 6-DoFs Reinovo industrial manipulator.

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In this paper, we present an optimization mechanism for two popular landmark-based mobile robot visual homing algorithms (ALV and HiSS), called vector pre-assigned mechanism (VPM). VPM contains two branches, both of which can promote the homing performance effectively. In addition, to make the landmark distribution satisfy the equal distance assumption, a landmark optimization strategy is proposed based on imaging principle of the panoramic vision. Experiments on both panoramic image database and a real mobile robot have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

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The positivity of fractional descriptor linear continuous-time systems is investigated. The solution to the state equation of the systems is derived. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of fractional descriptor linear continuous-time systems are established. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.

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This article presents a new efficient method of determining values of gas flow parameters (e.g. axial dispersion coefficient, DL and Pèclet number, Pe). A simple and very fast technique based on the pulse tracer response is proposed. It is a method which combines the benefits of a transfer function, numerical inversion of the Laplace transform and optimization allows estimation of missing coefficients. The study focuses on the simplicity and flexibility of the method. Calculations were performed with the use of the CAS-type program (Maple®). The correctness of the results obtained is confirmed by good agreement between the theory and experimental data for different pressures and temperature. The CAS-type program is very helpful both for mathematical manipulations as a symbolic computing environment (mathematical formulas of Laplace-domain model are rather sophisticated) and for numerical calculations. The method of investigations of gas flow motion is original. The method is competitive with earlier methods.

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Abstrakt

In this survey paper, resonant and quasiresonant dc link inverters are reexamined for ac motor drive applications. Critical evaluation of representative topologies is based on simulation and waveform analysis to characterize current/voltage stress of components, control timing constraints and feasibility. A special concern over inverter common-mode voltage and voltage gradient du/dt limitation capacity is discussed for motor bearing and winding insulation safety. Experimental records of the laboratory developed parallel quasiresonant dc link inverter feeding induction motor confirm results of analysis. Comparative tables and simulation results demonstrate characteristic features of various schemes.

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The paper presents a solution for sensorless field oriented control (FOC) system for five-phase induction motors with improved rotor flux pattern. In order to obtain the advantages of a third harmonic injection with a quasi-trapezoidal flux shape, two vector models, α1–β1 and α3–β3, were transformed into d1–q1, d3–q3 rotating frames, which correlate to the 1st and 3rd harmonic plane respectively. A linearization approach of the dual machine model in dq coordinate frames is proposed by introducing a new additional variable “x” which is proportional to the electromagnetic torque. By applying the static feedback control law, a dual mathematical model of the five-phase induction motor was linearized to synthesize a control system in which the electromagnetic torque and the rotor flux can be independently controlled. The results shows the air gap flux shape in steady as well transient states under various load conditions. Moreover, the implemented control structure acquires fault tolerant properties and leads to possible emergency running with limited operation capabilities. The fault-tolerant capability of the analyzed machine was guaranteed by a special implemented control system with a dedicated speed observer, which is insensitive to open-phase fault situation. The experimental tests have been performed with single and double-open stator phase fault. A torque measurement was implemented to present the mechanical characteristics under healthy and faulty conditions of the drive system.

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The paper presents an analysis of overvoltages caused by a direct lightning strike in intrusion detection system equipped with underground radiating cable sensors. Waveforms of currents and voltages in the system components are calculated using analytical formulas basing on a transmission-line model in the frequency domain. The time-domain waveforms are computed using the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). Three network configurations of the intrusion detection system are analyzed.

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The proper description of circuits supplied from an asymmetrical and sinusoidal voltage source, in which line parameters are included, requires an adequate mathematical concept or theory. The authors of the publication present the mathematical concept of the currents’ asymmetrical components for three-phase four-wire systems, taking into account the impedance of the neutral conductor and the impedance of power transmission lines. In the new approach, four orthogonal current components were proposed in charge of its flow between the source and the load. The introduced distribution shows, regardless of the type of the voltage asymmetry (amplitude or phase), it is possible to set down the symmetrical active current and other components, i.e. reactive current, negative current and zero current, which will allow determining the reference current of the active filter.

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Abstrakt

The study of the different engineering materials according to their mechanical and dynamic characteristics has become an area of research interest in recent years. Several studies have verified that the mechanical properties of the material are directly affected by the distribution and size of the particles that compose it. Such is the case of asphalt mixtures. For this reason, different digital tools have been developed in order to be able to detect the structural components of the elements in a precise, clear and efficient manner. In this work, a segmentation model is developed for different types of dense-graded asphalt mixtures with grain sizes from 9.5 mm to 0.0075 mm, using sieve size reconstruction of the laboratory production curve. The laboratory curve is used to validate the particles detection model that uses morphological operations for elements separation. All this with the objective of developing a versatile tool for the analysis and study of pavement structures in a non-destructive test. The results show that the model presented in this work is able to segment elements with an area greater than 0.0324 mm2 and reproduce the sieve size curves of the mixtures with a high percentage of precision.

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Abstrakt

The European standards, developed extensively over last 30 years, are driven by the need for continuous evolution and their Authors’ pursuit of better EU-wide quality in civil engineering – combining safety, economy, and sustainable development. The adoption of theory of reliability as the basis for design has played a major role in shaping current geotechnical practice. However, it requires from practitioners a greater understanding of underlying uncertainties. Furthermore, a number of alternative approaches, not generally used in structural design, are also allowed, as some situations in geotechnical engineering require an individual approach. Moreover, the current trends in geoengineering increase the importance of risk assessment and management. The paper presents general philosophy guiding the geotechnical design and pointing to some of the ideas introduced by Eurocode 7 and its requirements, in relation to preexisting practice of geotechnical design in civil engineering.

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The article presents an analysis of the change in air voids in asphalt mixtures subjected to fatigue tests at three temperatures of 0°C, 10°C and 25°C. The X-ray computerized tomography imaging method, XCT, was used to identify the air voids in the samples. The research allowed to determine changes in the content of air voids in subsequent fatigue cycles in the sample area. The relationship between air voids volume and the stiffness modulus value was also determined during fatigue for three temperatures. The largest changes were found in samples with notches at 0°C. The analysis of the change in the content of air voids showed that the micro-cracking nucleation processes develop with the number of fatigue cycles. Using the numerical model finite element method we determined the distribution and change in fatigue damage in the extreme areas of the sample during various stages of fatigue. We found clear relationship between the damage and the increased content of air voids.

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The paper presents the modelling measurement results of the load-displacement relation for scaffold stands and bracings. In the case of stands, there are two sections of curves, i.e. a straight-line and curvilinear section, and in the case of bracings, two straight line sections as well as one curvilinear section are distinguished. As a result of analyses, it is concluded that the sections which can be approximated by means of linear functions should be distinguished in graphs, if possible. On the one hand, this results from the evaluation methods of scaffold components. Nevertheless, the determination of elastic-linear scope of components’ operation is useful in engineering practice during computer calculations. Moreover, the method of determining an intersection point between functions, approximating tests results, along with analysis of the impact of polynomial degree, approximating the research results, on the time and effectiveness of the process of approximating functions selection, are all demonstrated in this article. The proposed method can prove useful in all science fields where curves obtained from any research (laboratory test, in situ test, numerical analysis) require approximation or replacement with a simpler description.

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This paper expands the M-K curve theory with examples of the most commonly mentioned pile-soil mechanics behaviours in the literature and their corresponding κ2 variations. A brief introduction shows the history of the Meyer-Kowalow theory and its basic assumptions. This is followed by the relationship between in situ investigation CPT results, with parameters C1, C2, Ct used to approximate the load-settlement curve according to the M-K theory. The Meyer-Kowalow curve satisfies asymptotic behaviour for small loads, where linear theory applies, and for limit loads, when pile displacement is out of control. Essential in the description are constant parameters C, which refer to the aggregated Winklers modulus, Ngr limit loads and k, which is crucial for static load test results. For this reason, the authors sought to calculate the κ value based upon soil mechanics principles. This article shows methods for checking statistical mathematical calculations, published earlier by Meyer using CPT investigations. It presents real case calculations and directions for future planned research.

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Abstrakt

An automatic analysis of product reviews requires deep understanding of the natural language text by machine. The limitation of bag-of-words (BoW) model is that a large amount of word relation information from the original sentence is lost and the word order is ignored. Higher-order-N-grams also fail to capture the long-range dependency relations and word order information. To address these issues, syntactic features extracted from the dependency relations can be used for machine learning based document-level sentiment classification. Generalization of syntactic dependency features and negation handling is used to achieve more accurate classification. Further to reduce the huge dimensionality of the feature space, feature selection methods based on information gain (IG) and weighted frequency and odds (WFO) are used. A supervised feature weighting scheme called delta term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) is also employed to boost the importance of discriminative features using the observed uneven distribution of features between the two classes. Experimental results show the effectiveness of generalized syntactic dependency features over standard features for sentiment classification using Boolean multinomial naive Bayes (BMNB) classifier.

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Abstrakt

Cross-docking is a strategy that distributes products directly from a supplier or manufacturing plant to a customer or retail chain, reducing handling or storage time. This study focuses on the truck scheduling problem, which consists of assigning each truck to a door at the dock and determining the sequences for the trucks at each door considering the time-window aspect. The study presents a mathematical model for door assignment and truck scheduling with time windows at multi-door cross-docking centers. The objective of the model is to minimize the overall earliness and tardiness for outbound trucks. Simulated annealing (SA) and tabu search (TS) algorithms are proposed to solve large-sized problems. The results of the mathematical model and of meta-heuristic algorithms are compared by generating test problems for different sizes. A decision support system (DSS) is also designed for the truck scheduling problem for multi-door cross-docking centers. Computational results show that TS and SA algorithms are efficient in solving large-sized problems in a reasonable time.

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Abstrakt

In recent years, deep learning and especially deep neural networks (DNN) have obtained amazing performance on a variety of problems, in particular in classification or pattern recognition. Among many kinds of DNNs, the convolutional neural networks (CNN) are most commonly used. However, due to their complexity, there are many problems related but not limited to optimizing network parameters, avoiding overfitting and ensuring good generalization abilities. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed by the researchers to deal with these problems. In this paper, we present the results of applying different, recently developed methods to improve deep neural network training and operating. We decided to focus on the most popular CNN structures, namely on VGG based neural networks: VGG16, VGG11 and proposed by us VGG8. The tests were conducted on a real and very important problem of skin cancer detection. A publicly available dataset of skin lesions was used as a benchmark. We analyzed the influence of applying: dropout, batch normalization, model ensembling, and transfer learning. Moreover, the influence of the type of activation function was checked. In order to increase the objectivity of the results, each of the tested models was trained 6 times and their results were averaged. In addition, in order to mitigate the impact of the selection of learning, test and validation sets, k-fold validation was applied.

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An ancient forging device in Spain has been studied, namely the forge with a waterwheel and air-blowing tube or hydraulic trompe, found near the village of Santa Eulalia de Oscos (province of Asturias, Spain). Three procedures using ad hoc methods were applied: 3D modelling, finite element analysis (FEA), and computational-fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD results indicated the proper functioning of the trompe, which is a peculiar device based on the Venturi effect to take in air. The maximum air volume flow rate supplied to the forge by the trompe was shown to be 0.091 m3/s, and certain parameters of relevance in the trompe design presented optimal values, i.e. offering maximum air-flow supply. Furthermore, the distribution of stress over the motion-transmission system revealed that the stress was concentrated most intensely in the cogs of the transmission shaft (a kind of camshaft), registering values of up to 7.50 MPa, although this value remained below half of the maximum admissible work stress. Therefore, it was confirmed that the oak wood from which the motion system and the trompe were made functioned properly, as these systems never exceeded the maximum admissible working stress, demonstrating the effectiveness of the materials used in that period.

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Surface topography assessments with valley exploration are of great importance. Two-process surfaces are often proposed for many combustion engines. One of the errors committed in surface topography measurements and analysis are those that occur during data processing. In this paper, improper areal form removal was taken into consideration for plateau-honed cylindrical surfaces with additionally burnished oil pockets. Usually, the reference plane is established by application of: fitting algorithms (e.g. cylindrical shape), polynomials, filters and other procedures. In many cases, the influence of the reference plane was not fully recognized during valley depth consideration. Moreover, the influence of areal form removal with edge-to-dimple and valley‑to-dimple distances was not precisely defined. In this research, commonly used algorithms for form separation in surface topography analysis were proposed for the applications being considered. The digital filter bandwidth was also specified for valley depth analysis. The distortion of edge‑located oil pockets was specified. It was assumed that application of robust techniques does not necessarily provide the desired results.

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In the paper, a solution of the time-fractional single-phase-lagging heat conduction problem in finite regions is presented. The heat conduction equation with the Caputo time-derivative is complemented by the Robin boundary conditions. The Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and an expansion in the eigenfunctions series with respect to the space variable was applied. A method for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transforms was used. Formulation and solution of the problem cover the heat conduction in a finite slab, hollow cylinder and hollow sphere. The effect of the fractional order of the Caputo derivative and the phase-lag parameter on the temperature distribution in a slab has been numerically investigated.

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Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief:

T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in Chief:

M. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

Board of Co-editors:

Artificial and Computational Intelligence

S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology

A. Liebert and R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

Civil Engineering

L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control, Robotics and Informatics

J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics

M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

W. Woliński, Warsaw University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics

A. Styczek and A. Tylikowski, Warsaw University of Technology

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN

T.A. Kowalewski and B. Blachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Power Systems and Power Electronics

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

I.V. Alexandrov, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Russia

R. Asthana, University of Wiscontin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China

F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France

R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria

E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Sevilla, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK

G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,

H.A. Mang, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan

S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada

S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

J. Rodriguez, Technical University of Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile

J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA

W. Włosiński, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A.L. Yarin, Institute of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China

J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA

Kontakt

Editorial Office:

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Wydział IV Nauk Technicznych PAN

Pl. Defilad 1

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Mrs Ewa Trojanowska

bulletinpas.et@gmail.com

Instrukcje dla autorów

Instructions for Authors

About the Journal

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published by the Division IV: Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form (http://www.czasopisma.pan.pl/bpas). It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred:

• Artificial and Computational Intelligence,

• Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology,

• Civil Engineering,

• Control, Informatics and Robotics,

• Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics,

• Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics,

• Material Science and Nanotechnology,

• Power Systems and Power Electronics.

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Format of the journal – A4 printed and electronic form,

Paper type – offset

Colourfulness – full colour at an extra charge,

The volume of the journal – 200 pages (ca 20 papers) + 4 cover pages,

Frequency of publication – bimonthly,

ISSN: 0239-7528 (print version),

ISSN: 2300-1917 (on line version),

DOI: 10.2478/bpasts

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Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.

ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci.,

JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH

Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS

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JCR Impact Factor 2017: 1.361

5 Year Impact Factor 2017: 1.323

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.526

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 1.208

Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.158

The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points

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50% discount for:

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5. Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN, in Polish NIP) – only when paid by an institution or another legal entity!

Check list for final submission to the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (after review)

1. Is your manuscript up to date? Did you include references, which were published while your manuscript was being processed? It is expected that at least 20% of references are to journal papers published in the last two years. Authors are welcome to consider reference papers published in the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. In order to find the recent Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. papers please visit Open Access platform: http://www.czasopisma.pan.pl/dlibra/journal/95347

2. Is your title adequate and is your abstract correctly written? In the age of electronic publications it is not easy to be noticed! Authors have to do everything possible so the paper will be seen and read. Therefore, very careful wording should be used in the title and in the abstract. Without a proper and interesting title and abstract a great paper might never be downloaded from the de Gruyter platform http://www.czasopisma.pan.pl/dlibra/journal/95347 and read.

3. Does the manuscript clearly describe problem(s) and your accomplishments? Can your manuscript be shortened? Are there sentences or paragraphs that do not provide important information and can be eliminated?

4. Is the length of your manuscript adequate? Please notice that for long papers, you may face mandatory over length charges per page.

5. Please make sure that the fee for printing your manuscript is paid.

Polityka Open Access

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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