Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2018 | Vol. 64 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The stiffness of structural elements (columns, beams, and slabs) significantly contributes to the overall stiffness of reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise buildings (H.R.B.s) subjected to earthquake. In order to investigate what percentage each type of element contributes to the overall performance of an H.R.B. under seismic load, the stiffness of each type of element is reduced by 10% to 90%. A time history analysis by SAP2000 was performed on thirteen 3D models of 12-story RC buildings in order to illustrate the contribution of column stiffness and column cross sections (rectangular or square), building floor plans (square or rectangular), beam stiffness and slab stiffness, on building resistance to an earthquake. The stiffness of the columns contributed more than the beams and slabs to the earthquake resistance of H.R.B.s. Rectangular cross-section columns must be properly oriented in order for H.R.B.s and slender buildings to attain the maximum resistance against earthquakes.

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Authors and Affiliations

D.-P.N. Kontoni
A.A. Farghaly
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Abstract

Underground structures have gained importance in recent times all over the globe. Successful completion of such ventures hinges on accurate and realistic design which is neither optimistic nor conservative, and a balanced design is the need of the hour. The present work shows a comparative study on support design, such as Terzhagi’s load theory and quantitative methods of Rock mass quality (Q), Rock Mass Rating of Bieniawski, and PLAXIS-2D Numerical modeling. The results obtained show that final support measures such as shotcreting, thickness, rock bolting, length, frequency, and requirements of steel supports are better. Based on engineering judgment and analytical approaches, realistic support measures were obtained for an access tunnel to be excavated in Nilagiri, Tamil Nadu.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Vanuvamalai
K.P. Jaya
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Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of natural vibrations of typical façade scaffolding. Three Finite Element Method models with different levels of accuracy of the real structure of the scaffolding representation were used. Modal analysis was carried out for each of these models. The obtained frequencies and mode shapes were compared with the results from the measurements performed on the full-scale scaffolding. The authors of the paper point out the difficulties arise while modelling such structures, and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of scaffolding computational models.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Jamińska-Gadomska
J. Bęc
T. Lipecki
A. Robak
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Abstract

The goal of the article is the diagnosis and presentation of the problems of the selection of construction technologies for buildings being built in the centres of urban agglomerations. The survey and literature studies that were performed show that the process of selecting these technologies is difficult due to a series of very different difficulties associated with constructing a structure in a city centre and which are sometimes hard to foresee. At the same time there is a lack of decision-making support tools dedicated to the selection of construction technologies that would take into account the problems that occur during the construction of buildings in city centres. The study shows the need to discuss the subject of developing a mathematical model and a decision-making support tool based on said model to that end.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Radziszewska-Zielina
E. Kania
G. Śladowski
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Abstract

This study investigates the fresh and mechanical performance of concrete incorporating sintered fly ash lightweight aggregates (SFLWA) both with and without steel fibers. Comparative assessments of natural aggregates with sintered fly ash aggregates were evaluated. Mix design was obtained by the IS method for M30 grade concrete, and within the natural aggregates were replaced with 20%, 40%, and 60% amounts of SFLWA. The addition of SFLWA shows an increase in the workability of the concrete. Replacement with SFLWA increases with an increase in slump value, and decreases in strength parameters. Compressive strength of 42.6 MPa was achieved with a 40% replacement of SFLWA with steel fibers. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, and structural efficiency of SFLWAC were examined, both with and without fibers. The incorporation of fibers drastically improved the mechanical properties of the mix.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Ranjith Babu
R. Thenmozhi
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Abstract

This paper outlines a method of determining the deformation and strength parameters for a hypothetical, homogeneous, substitute material which approximates the properties of heterogeneous materials in reinforced concrete elements. The model of the substitute material creates a concrete reference model, in which the static - strength - deformation parameters were modified on the basis of the homogenizing function with the homogenization coefficient assumed as the effective reinforcement ratio of the reinforced concrete structural elements. The results of the comparative analysis of the numerical models using the hypothetical substitute material with experimental results for statically loaded beams and deep beams taken from the literature are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Siwiński
A. Stolarski
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Abstract

This paper deals with problems of failure mechanisms of S235JR structural steel. One of the fundamental parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman damage mechanics-based material model is considered in order to describe the behaviour of the material at the plastic range. The analysis was performed on the void volume fraction fF determined at failure of S235JR steel. The case of low initial stress triaxiality η = 1/3 was taken into consideration. Different from the most popular methods such as curve-fitting, the experimental method based on the digital image analysis of the fracture surface of S235JR steel is proposed in order to determine the critical parameter fF.

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Authors and Affiliations

P.G. Kossakowski
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Abstract

Foundry sand waste can be utilized for the preparation of concrete as a partial replacement of sand. The strength properties of M25 grade concrete are studied with different percentages of replacement of fine aggregates by foundry sand at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. The optimum percentage of foundry sand replacement in the concrete corresponding to maximum strength will be identified. Keeping this optimum percentage of foundry sand replacement as a constant, a cement replacement study with mineral admixtures such as silica fume (5%, 7.5%, 10%) and fly ash (10%, 15%, 20%,) is carried out separately. The maximum increase in strength properties as compared to conventional concrete was achieved at 40% foundry sand replacement. Test results indicated that a 40% replacement of foundry sand with silica fume showed better performance than that of fly ash. The maximum increase in strengths was observed in a mix consisting of 40% foundry sand and 10% silica fume. SEM analysis of the concrete specimens also reveals that a mix with 40% foundry sand and 10% silica fume obtained the highest strength properties compared to all other mixes due to the creation of more C-H-S gel formations and fewer pores.

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Authors and Affiliations

K.V.S. Gopala Krishna Sastry
A. Ravitheja
T. Chandra Sekhara Reddy
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Abstract

In the paper the issue connected with water network failure regarding the soil conditions was presented. Water pipes constitute a large part of water company asset. Therefore the analysis concerning the influence of soil conditions into failure occurrence of water pipe is crucial for proper functioning of water supply systems (WSS). In the performed studies the real data from the operation of the exemplary WSS was obtained. The following properties of the ground conditions were taken into consideration among others: the chemical composition and ground phase, based on analysis performed through the following equipment, as the electron microscope with X-ray spectrometer detector and backscattered electrons (BSE) using the powder Debye-Sherrer’s method and X-ray diffractometer. The analysis indicate dependence between soil conditions and corrosivity occurrence, what indicate the importance of performed analysis.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Pękala
K. Pietrucha-Urbanik
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Abstract

Shear cracking behaviour of fibrous self-compacting concrete of normal and high strength grade (M30 and M70) is presented here. Two stirrup diameters (6mm Φ and 8 mm Φ) with a constant steel fiber content of 38 kg/m3 (0.5% by volume of concrete) were selected for the present study. The size of the beam was fixed at 100x200x1200mm. The clear span of the beam 1100 mm, was maintained throughout the study. A total of 16 shear-deficient beams were tested under three point loading. Two stirrup spacing (180 mm and 360 mm) are used for the shear span-to-depth ratio (a/d = 2). Investigation indicates that initial cracking load and ultimate load increased as the area of shear reinforcement increased by increasing the diameter of stirrup. It was also noted that the failure mode was modified from brittle shear failure to flexural-shear failure in the presence of fibers. The mechanical behaviour of SFRSCC was improved due to the combined effect of stirrups and steel fibers. The stiffness, toughness, and deflection of the beams increased when compared to SCC beams without fibers. The experimental results were compared with existing models available in literature, and the correlation is satisfactory.

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Authors and Affiliations

Praveen Kannam
Sarella Venkateswara Rao
Rathish Kumar Pancharathi
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Abstract

There are about 8.5 million workers employed in the construction sector in India. Construction workers constitute a major portion of the unorganized labour and are characterized by their casual nature of employment, temporary relationship with the employer, prolonged and uncertain working hours, lack of safety and health measures, and inadequacy of basic amenities and welfare facilities. There are many legislation clauses providing safeguards for contract workers in India. Construction safety has been made legally enforceable after the enactment of The Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act in 1996 and the Central Rules in 1998. This paper details various statutory provisions for construction safety in India with specific reference to the BOCW Act, Central Rules, and State Rules.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Sivaprakash
S. Kanchana
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Abstract

Pervious concrete is a unique and effective material used to tackle important environmental problems, to maintain green, sustainable growth, and to reduce storm water runoff and pollutants. Clogging of pervious concrete is an important potential issue in serviceability, considered one of the primary limitations of pervious concrete systems. The sediment deposition pattern of pervious concrete was determined using three clogging materials: clay, sand, and clayey silty sand. The clogged specimens were cleaned by pressure washing, vacuuming, and a combined method. In total, ten clogging and cleaning cycles were carried out on each sample to evaluate the draining capacity of the pervious concrete. The clogging test was assessed by measuring the infiltration rate during clogging and after cleaning, for each cycle. The experiment results showed that a reduction in permeability due to different types of sedimentation material as well as recovery in permeability was achieved after applying various cleaning methods.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Rama
V.M. Shanthi

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Jacek Chróścielewski
Luc Courard (Belgium)
Andrzej Garbacz
Andrzej Garstecki
Wojciech Gilewski
Marian Giżejowski
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Marian Kwietniewski
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Andrew P. Tarko (USA)
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Edmundas K. Zavadskas (Lithuania)
Jerzy Ziółko

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Archives of Civil Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Archives of Civil Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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