Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

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Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2020 | vol. 65 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The effect of the complex ligature with nickel and REM (Ce, La) aluminides on the structure formation, the nature of the distribution of the elements, and the microhardness of the structural constituents of Al-5 wt.% Cu aluminum alloy were investigated. On the example of microalloying of the Al-5 wt.% Cu alloy with a master alloy containing Ni and REM (Ce, La) aluminides it was shown that a redistribution of Al and Cu occurs in α-solid solution and eutectic. This is reflected in the refinement of α-solid solution and eutectic at 0.15 wt.% of the master alloy addition and, accordingly, increases the microhardness of α-solid solution by 100 MPa and eutectic by 125 MPa.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Ri
K. Ri
V. Deev
E. Prusov
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Abstract

Nowadays, titanium is one of the most popular materials for aeronautical applications due to its good corrosion resistance, formability and strength. In this paper, rutile reinforced titanium matrix composites were produced via powder metallurgy. The steps included high energy ball milling of raw titanium and rutile powders in a planetary ball mill, which was followed by cold-pressing and sintering without external pressure. For the characterization of the milled powders and the sintered composites, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength examinations were carried out. The results showed that the rutile has a strengthening effect on the titanium matrix. 1 wt% rutile increased the compressive strength compared to the raw titanium. Increasing the milling time of the metal matrix decreased the compressive strength values.

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Authors and Affiliations

D.A. Angel
T. Miko
M. Benke
Z. Gacsi
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Abstract

Following paper is focused on experimental and numerical studies of the behavior and energy absorption for both: quasi-static and dynamic axial crushing of thin-walled cylindrical tubes filled with foam. The experiments were conducted on single walled and double walled tubes. Unfilled profiles were compared with tubes filled with various density polyurethane foam. All experiments were done in order to possibility of the safety of the elements absorbing collision energy which can applied in car body. The dynamic nonlinear simulations were carried out by means of PAM-CRASH™ explicit code, which is dedicated calculation package to modelling of crush. Computational crushing force, plastic hinges locations and specimens post-crushed geometry found to be convergent with the real experiments results. Conducted experiments allowed to draw conclusion, that crashworthiness ability is directly proportional to foam density. The investigation of the experimental data revealed, that double walled tubes have greater energy absorbing ability. A proposed investigation enable to analyze and chosen of optimal parameters of these elements, which can use in automotive industry as an absorption energy components.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Kaczyński
J. Karliński
M. Hawryluk
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Abstract

In this investigation the surface of an aluminized sample of plain carbon steel was melted and alloyed using a tingsten inert gas (TIG) welding process to produce iron-aluminide intermetallic phases on the surface. The produced coating was then characterized by SEM and EDS and its high-temperature properties in O2 + 1%SO2 gas were examined. The results showed that the Fe3Al coating produced could protect the substrate as it was subjected to the corroding gases at 700oC due to the formation of an alumina layer between the substrate and an outer layer of Fe2O3. At 900oC, the coating could only protect the substrate for 64 h. The lack of further protection at this temperature is attributed to the decrease in the protective properties of alumina with an increase in its temperature and the lack of presence of enough Al atoms in the coating for the repair of the defects formed in the alumina layer.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Omranian-Mohammadi
R. Raiszadeh
H.R. Shahversdi
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Abstract

The influence of boron carbide and tungsten carbide on the apparent porosity, density, coercive force, hardness and microstructure of metal matrix composite of the Ferro-TiC type, is presented in this paper. The samples of investigated steel/titanium carbide composite were produced by powder metallurgy process, i.e. by powders mixing and compacting followed by sintering in the vacuum furnace. According to the results, steel/titanium carbide composite materials with addition up to 11.9 vol.% of boron carbide are interesting to detailed investigation as well as materials having more than 17.2 vol.% of tungsten carbide because these compositions show significant changes in hardness and coercive force values.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ljerka Slokar Benić
Jadranko Šubić
Žiga Erman
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Abstract

Comprehensive understanding of the melt quality is of vital importance for foundry man. The effect of each particular element need to be properly analysed. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to analyse the impact of various content of zirconium on the solidification path and structural characteristics (SDAS, grain size, porosity) of as cast commercial AlSi10MgCu alloys. It has been found that addition of zirconium up to 0.24 wt.% reduce significantly the grains size (from 3.5 mm to 1.2 mm), SDAS (from 57.3 µm to 50.4 µm) and porosity (from 19% to 5%), leading to production of sound cast parts.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Hajduch
M.B. Djurdjevic
D. Bolibruchová
Z. Simicevic
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Abstract

In this study, different amounts of tantalum carbide (TaC) powders (5, 10 and 15 wt.%) are added to Vanadis 4 Extra steel powders. The composite powders are sintered at 1260, 1280, 1300, 1320, 1340 and 1360°C for 1 h, respectively. The experimental results showed that good mechanical properties (hardness 79.7 HRA, TRS 2246 MPa) were obtained by the addition of 10% TaC sintered at 1320°C for 1 h. Furthermore, the optimal sintered V4ES/TaC (Vanadis 4 Extra steel / TaC) composites after sub-zero treatment possess the highest hardness (80.9 HRA) and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values (2445 MPa), as well as a better polarization resistance (658.99 Ω·cm2). After sub-zero treatment, the VC carbides decompose and re-precipitate refined VC carbides within the grains (VC carbides are formed in steel powder); moreover, the TaC particles are still uniformly distributed around the grain boundaries, which results in dispersion strengthening and precipitation hardening. The results clearly reveal that sub-zero heat treatment effectively improves the microstructure and strengthens the V4ES/TaC composite.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kuo-Tsung Huang
Shih-Hsien Chang
Chan-Yu Chuang
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Abstract

Friction Stir Process (FSP) was employed to develop Cupro-Nickel/Zirconium Carbide (Cu-Ni/ZrC) surface composites. Five different groove widths ranging from 0 to 1.4 mm were made in CuNi alloy plate to incorporate different ZrC volume fraction (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 %) to study its influence on the structure and properties of Cu-Ni/ZrC composite. Processing was performed at a Tool Rotational Speed (TRS) of 1300 rpm, Tool Traverse Speed (TTS) of 40 mm/min with a constant axial load of 6 KN. The study is performed to analyse the influence of ZrC particles and the volume fraction of ZrC particles on the microstructural evolution, microhardness, mechanical properties, and tribological characteristics of the Cu-Ni/ZrC composite. The fracture and worn-out surfaces are analysed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to identify the fracture and wear mechanisms. The results demonstrated a simultaneous increase in microhardness and tensile strength of the developed composite because of grain refinement, uniform dispersion, and excellent bonding of ZrC with the matrix. Besides, the wear resistance increases with increase in volume fraction of ZrC particles in the composite. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the wear mechanism transits from severe wear regime to mild wear regime with increase in volume fraction of ZrC particles.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Velmurugan
R. Subramanian
G. Suganya Priyadharshini
R. Raghu
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Abstract

Two methods were evaluated in terms of manufacturing of MAX phase preforms characterized with open porosity: microwave-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The main purpose of fabrication of such open-porous preforms is that they can be successfully applied as a reinforcement in metal matrix composite (MMC) materials. In order to simulate the most similar conditions to microwave-assisted SHS, the sintering time of SPS was significantly reduced and the pressure was maintained at a minimum value. The chosen approach allows these two methods to be compared in terms of structure homogeneity, complete reactive charge conversion and energy effectivity. Study was performed in Ti-Al-C system, in which the samples were compacted from elemental powders of Ti, Al, C in molar ratio of 2:1:1. Manufactured materials after syntheses were subjected to SEM, XRD and STEM analyses in order to investigate their microstructures and chemical compositions. As was concluded, only microwave-assisted SHS synthesis allows the creation of MAX phases in the studied system. SPS technique led only to the formation of intermetallic secondary phases. The fabrication of MAX phases’ foams by microwave-assisted SHS presents some interesting advantages compared to conventional manufacturing methods. This work presents the characterization of foams obtained by microwave-assisted SHS comparing the results with materials produced by SPS. The analysis of SPS products for different sintering temperatures provided the better insight into the synthesis of MAX phases, supporting the established mechanism. Dissimilarities in the heating mechanisms that lead to the differing synthesis products were also discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Dmitruk
M. Lagos
K. Naplocha
P. Egizabal
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Abstract

In present work, two nuclear grade steel (P91, P92) are joined using the arc welding process. The welded joints were subjected to the heat treatment in order to restore the mechanical properties and overcome the heterogeneity across the joints. The weldments were studied for microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior under different condition of heat treatment. The variation in mechanical behavior obtained for the welded joints were tried to relate the microstructural evolution. After the normalizing based heat treatment, homogeneity with negligible δ ferrite across the welded joints was observed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sachin Sirohi
Chandan Pandey
Amit Goyal
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Abstract

In this research work, high uniform CuFeS2 chalcopyrite with 20-40 nm particles were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. Different analysis were used to characterize the obtained product such as X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of the product was investigated by degradation three different dyes namely acid brown, acid red and methylene blue. The results showed the synthesized CuFeS2 nanoparticles have high photocatalytic activity and can degrade the used dyes in large quantities.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Sabet
Kamran Mahdavi
Fahimeh Salmeh
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Abstract

Industrial steelmaking (EAF) flue dust was characterized in terms of chemical and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 20% sulphuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effect. Waste product contained about 43% Zn, 27% Fe, 19% O, about 3% Pb and Mn and lesser amounts of other elements (Ca, Si, Mo, etc.). It consisted mainly of oxide-type compounds of iron and zinc. Dissolution of metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) from the dust was determined in a dependence of solid to liquid ratio (50-200 g/L), temperature (20-80oC) and leaching time (up to 120 min). The best result of 60% zinc recovery was obtained for 50 g dust/L and a temperature of 80oC. Leaching of the material was an exothermic process with a reaction heat of about –318 kJ/kg. Precipitation purification of the solution was realized using various ratios of H2O2 to NH3aq. A product of this stage was hydrated iron(III) oxide. Final solution was used for zinc electrowinning. Despite that pure zinc was obtained the highest cathodic current efficiency was only 40%.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Rudnik
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Abstract

In this study, lead-free 0.94 Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) compositions at morphotropic phase boundary were successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction method. The effects of the particle size for various milling time (12-24-48 hours) and sintering temperatures (1100-1125-1150-1175oC for 2h) on the electrical properties of the NBT-BT ceramics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that particle size and sintering temperatures significantly affect the electrical properties of NBT-BT ceramics. The particle size of the ceramic powders decreasing while milling time increases to 48 hours. Particle size values for 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours (h) milled powders were measured as nearly 1.5 µm, 1 µm, 700 nm, and 500 nm respectively. The bulk density enhanced with increasing sintering temperature and showed the highest value (5.73 g/cm3) at 1150oC for 48h milled powder. Similarly, the maximum piezoelectric constant (d33) = 105 pC/N, electromechanical coupling coefficient (kp) = 25.5% and dielectric constant (KT) = 575 were measured at 1150oC for 48 h milled powder. However, mechanical quality factor (Qm) was reduced from 350 to 175 with decreasing particle size. Similarly, remnant polarization was dropped by decreasing powder particle size from 56 μC/cm2 to 45 μC/cm2.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mert Gul
Mevlüt Gurbuz
Abdi B. Gokceyrek
Aysegül Toktaş
Taner Kavas
Aydin Dogan
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Abstract

The paper presents selected results of KOBO extrusion process of circular profile ϕ10 mm from aluminum alloy 2099. The main aim of the performed research was to determine the influence of the oscillation frequency of a die on the magnitude of extrusion force. During the process such parameters, as extrusion force, rate of stem and frequency of die oscillation were recorded; oscillating angle of a die was constant and equal ±8°. The die oscillation frequency was changeable in performed tests in the range of 2 ÷ 7 Hz. The obtained results allowed to determine the relation between the maximum extrusion force and the die oscillation frequency during extrusion of aluminum 2099 alloy.

The paper focuses on the experimental analysis of mechanical characteristics of the KOBO process. Basing on the recorded force versus stem position, three stages of KOBO extrusion process were determined, i.e. initialization, stabilization and uniform extrusion. Points separating these stages are two inflection points of recorded diagram. The analysis of each stage was made basing on the results of force diagrams and literature data.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Balawender
M. Zwolak
Ł. Bąk
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Abstract

A SrTiO3 electroceramic with perovskite structure was produced by the calcination of a mixture of SrCO3 and TiO2 intensively grounded by high energy milling. For this purpose, raw materials were mixed in stoichiometric amounts in a planetary type mill; the obtained powder mixture was calcined for 2 h at temperatures between 800 and 1300°C. Samples resulting from the calcination were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM analysis and electrical measurements. From XRD, it was determined that the SrTiO3 formed presents the cubic structure of perovskite. The complete reaction for SrTiO3 compound formation occurs at 1200°C. Micrograph observations indicate the presence of a homogeneous microstructure with tiny grain size. The measured values of electrical resistivity were within the typical range of insulating materials.

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Authors and Affiliations

Enrique Rocha-Rangel
Wilian J. Pech-Rodríguez
Juan López-Hernández
Carlos A. Calles-Arriaga
Eddie N. Armendáriz-Mireles
José A. Castillo-Robles
José A. Rodríguez-García
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Abstract

Silicate coatings have been considered as an alternative to toxic and carcinogenic other chemical treatments. In this paper, a strengthened silicate coating was formed on the surface of low carbon steel by dip immersion method. The modification and strengthening was done by loading colloidal nano-SiO2 into the film. The characterizations of nano-SiO2 were investigated by FESEM, TEM and FT-IR. The effects of nano contents (weight ratio) and drying temperatures on corrosion properties of silicate film were studied. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and immersion tests have been used to study corrosion behavior of nano-loaded silicate films. Surface morphology, microstructure and its chemical composition were analyzed by means of FESEM, EDS, AFM, XRD, GIXRD, ATR-FTIR and Raman techniques. Results indicated that colloidal nano-SiO2 properly modified the silicate coatings and significantly improved the corrosion resistance and barrier property. Also drying temperature showed a considerable effect in silicate coating and higher corrosion resistance was obtained with 150°C curing.

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Authors and Affiliations

M.R. Majdi
I. Danaee
D. Zaarei
M. Farzam
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Abstract

Evaluation of inorganic and organic compounds as corrosion inhibitors of Cu-Zn alloys in H2SO4 and HNO3 solutions was studied using potentiodynamic and impedance spectroscopy along with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. The corrosion inhibition of Cu-Zn alloys was investigated in oxy acid solutions using inorganic potassium permanganate and di-hydrogen phosphate, amino acids as environmentally safe materials, commercial cooling water, and green tea extracts. Both potassium permanganate and di-hydrogen phosphate improve the corrosion resistance of Cu-Zn alloys. Phosphate appears more effective as corrosion inhibitor for Cu-Zn alloys than permanganate. The inhibition efficiency (IE%) of the different amino acids such as valine, leucine and lysine was also calculated. The experimental results have shown that amino acid-like lysine can be used as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for the Cu-Zn alloys in oxy acid solutions. This may be due to the presence of two amino groups adsorbed together. For lysine, inhibition efficiency, IE%, of ~87 and ~59 is for H2SO4 and ~96.3 and 54.9 for HNO3 for alloy I and II respectively are observed. Due to the composition of green water have a great effect on the inhibition action on Cu-Zn alloys which reaching 91.8 and 96.5% for Alloy I and 95.4 and 87.1% for Alloy II in 0.5 M H2SO4 and HNO3 respectively. Although benzotriazole, in cooling water, is an excellent inhibitor suitable for use in a wide variety of environments, it has toxic properties. So, much of the recent researches have focused on formulating new and more environmentally acceptable preservation solutions. The green tea, as plant extract, will be very environmentally friendly. The EDX confirm the formation of a protective layer on the Cu-Zn alloys containing aluminum in Alloy II. This sequence reflects the beneficial effects of Al in Alloy II. The presence of 2.43% Al in Alloy II improves the corrosion resistance due to the formation of thin, transparent, stable and self – healing Al2O3 layer. This confirmed the results obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization measurements and EIS methods.

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Authors and Affiliations

Amal S.I. Ahmed
Wafaa A. Ghanem
Walaa A. Hussein
Ghalia A. Gaber
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Abstract

The (Zn) – single crystal strengthened by the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti eutectic precipitate is subjected to directional growth by the Bridgman’s system and current analysis. Experimentally, the strengthening layers (stripes) are generated periodically in the (Zn) – single crystal as a result of the cyclical course of precipitation which accompanies the directional solidification. These layers evince diversified eutectic morphologies like irregular rods, regular lamellae, and regular rods. The L – shape rods of the Zn16Ti – intermetallic compound appear within the first range of the growth rates when the irregular eutectic structure is formed. Next, the branched rods transform into regular rods and subsequently the regular rods into regular lamellae transitions can be recorded. The regular lamellae exist only within a certain range of growth rates. Finally, the regular rods re-appear at some elevated growth rates.

A new solution to the diffusion equation is provided to describe the micro-field of the solute concentration in the liquid adjacent to the front of the growing eutectic structure. The solution is based on the mass balance in the considered system. Moreover, the existence of the protrusion of the leading eutectic phase over the wetting one is required by the mass balance. The appearance of the d – protrusion in the growing eutectic is well confirmed by the experimental observations of the frozen solid/liquid interface. The mentioned solution satisfies the concept of the eutectic coupled growth according to which undercooling of the leading phase is less than undercooling of the wetting eutectic phase. Also, the Ti – solute micro-segregation / redistribution is analyzed within the matrix of the single crystal. The micro-segregation is described as a result of the solution to the adequate, newly developed differential equation. The definition for the solute redistribution is given by the subsequently / separately formulated relationship. This definition takes into account both extent -, and intensity of the solute redistribution.

Finally, the entropy production is calculated for the regular lamellae -, and for the regular rods formation, respectively. The entropy production is a function of some parameters which define the eutectic phase diagram, coefficient of the diffusion in the liquid, and some capillary parameters connected with the mechanical equilibrium located at the triple point of the solid/liquid interface. Branches formation is related to the marginal stability. A new criterion is formulated and subjected to successful verification. It is: in the structural – thermodynamic competition the winner is this kind of the pattern for which minimum entropy production has a lower value.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Wołczyński
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Abstract

In this work, the spectrophotometric studies on the kinetics of redox reaction between gold(III) bromide complexes and sodium nitrite, were carried out. From the kinetic curves collected under different conditions of reactants concentration, addition of bromide ions, temperature, pH and ionic strength, corresponding rate constants have been determined. The obtained results suggest the complex path of the [AuBr4]– reduction consisting of two parallel, bimolecular reactions where different reductant species (HNO2 and NO2–) take place and consecutive step with the metallic gold production. The second-order rate constants at 20oC are equal to 2.948 and 0.191 M–1·s–1, respectively. The values of activation enthalpy and activation entropy for the first and the second parallel step of the reaction were found to be ΔH‡ = 29.18 kJ·mol–1 and ΔS‡ = –13.95 J·mol–1·K, and ΔH‡ = 40.75 kJ·mol–1 and ΔS‡ = –31.06 ­J·mol–1·K, respectively. It was found that the reaction accelerates significantly with the increase of pH and is inhibited with the increase of Br– concentration. The substitutive, inner-sphere mechanism of electron transfer in the studied system was also suggested.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Pacławski
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Abstract

Fe-based PM alloy powder of Fe-2.5Ni-0.5Mo-2Cu-0.4C was pressed by high velocity compaction combined with die wall lubrication, and the effect of die wall lubrication on high velocity compaction behavior and sintering properties of the Fe-based PM alloy were studied. The results indicate that the impact force, green density, sintered density of samples increase with the augment of the impact velocity and die wall lubrication. Compared with that without die wall lubrication, the green density and sintered density of the sample with die wall lubrication are about 0.07-0.12 g/cm3 and 0.08~0.11 g/cm3 higher at the same impact velocity, respectively, while the ejection force of the die wall lubricated sample is much smaller, and reduced about 26%~36%. The green compact with die wall lubrication has much fewer porosity than that without die wall lubrication, and more mechanical bonding and cold welding regions are observed. The sintered samples mainly consists of gray pearlite and white ferrite, and more pearlite is observed in the sintered sample with die wall lubrication.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zili Liu
Dong Li
Xiqin Liu
Haohao Li
Xin Huang
Zhihao Tang
Yuwen Zou
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Abstract

The paper presents a prototype semi-industrial cooling line developed by the authors, which makes it possible to design a thermal treatment of forgings with the use of the forging heat, together with exemplary test results for forgings forked type. The proposed method of heat treatment dedicated to these forgings was described and compared to traditionally used heat treatment method in chamber furnaces. Next, the original research stand was presented, which performs mechanical fatigue test on final products – forked-type forgings. Forgings after heat treatment and cooling on the prototype line were tested on this stand in condition of cyclically variable mechanical loads in order to resistance to mechanical fatigue was analyzed and the influence of performed exemplary heat treatment on mechanical properties. The presented preliminary investigations performed on the designed combined research standing, consisting of: the prototype controlled cooling line, as well as mechanical fatigue stand point to the possibility of implementing thermal treatment with the use of the heat generated during the forging process and determining its impact on the mechanical properties of forgings.

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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Gronostajski
M. Hawryluk
P. Jabłoński
M. Zwierzchowski
A. Barelkowski
P. Widomski
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Abstract

The paper covers the research on the process of solutionizing of 7075 aluminum alloy in cold tools during the stamping of a high-strength structural element (B-pillar’s base). For technological reasons, in order to obtain high strength parameters of the 7075 alloy, it is necessary to carry out a solutionization process, which allows to obtain dispersion strengthening during ageing process. Properly performed heat treatment of the alloy increases the strength of the material to approx. 600 MPa. The combination of the process of solutionization with simultaneous shaping is aimed at improving and simplifying technological operations of aluminum alloy stamping, shortening the duration of the manufacturing process and reducing production costs. The manufactured lower part of the B-pillar will be used for the verification of the validity of the developed method. During the experiment, a series of stamping tests were carried out, in which the lubricants, pressure and position of the upper and lower blankholders were the variables. The obtained results allow to estimate the influence of the cooling conditions on the strength of the drawpieces obtained after the process of artificial ageing. In order to verify and analyse the results more quickly, a numerical simulation was carried out.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Jaśkiewicz
M. Skwarski
S. Polak
Z. Gronostajski
J. Krawczyk
P. Kaczyński
W. Chorzępa
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Abstract

Development of a reliable numerical model capturing major physical mechanisms controlling explosive welding and considering properties of all process components i.e. base plate and flyer plate is the goal of the paper. To properly replicate materials behavior under these severe conditions a meshfree approach, namely Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), was used to discretize the computational domain. The model is based on the Mie-Gruneisen shock equation of state applied to the Ti/Cu system as a case study. Examples of results in the form of velocity, equivalent stress, equivalent strain, and pressure fields are presented within the paper.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mojżeszko
K. Perzyński
M. Sionkowski
H. Paul
Ł. Madej
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Abstract

Investigation of influence of TiN thin film morphology on deformation inhomogeneities is an overall subject of the research. Numerical modelling approach that was selected for the study is based on the digital material representation concept, which gives an opportunity to directly replicate columnar microstructure morphology of an investigated thin film. Particular attention in this paper is put on the discussion of the influence of cellular automata neighbourhood on thin-film digital morphologies and their further deformation behaviour. Additionally, an evaluation of representativeness aspects of the digital models, in particular, the analysis of the influence of a number of columns, their dimensions and variations in their properties on the material behaviour during compression tests is also presented. The non-periodic boundary conditions are assumed during the investigation. Obtained data in the form of equivalent stress distributions as well as homogenized stress-strain curves from analyzed case studies are presented and discussed within the paper.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Perzyński
D. Zych
M. Sitko
Ł. Madej
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Abstract

The paper presents low-cycle fatigue (LCF) characteristics of selected magnesium alloys used, among others, in the automotive and aviation industries. The material for the research were bars of magnesium alloys AZ31 and WE43 after hot plastic working. Due to their application(s), these alloys should have good/suitable fatigue properties, first of all fatigue durability in a small number of cycles.

Low-cycle fatigue tests were carried out on the MTS-810 machine at room temperature. Low-cycle fatigue trials were conducted for three total strain ranges Δεt of 0.8%, 1.0% and 1.2% with the cycle asymmetry factor R = –1. Based on the results obtained, fatigue life characteristics of materials, cyclic deformation characteristics σa = f(N) and cyclic deformation characteristics of the tested alloys were developed. The tests have shown different behaviors of the tested alloys in the range of low number of cycles. The AZ31 magnesium alloy was characterized by greater fatigue life Nf compared to the WE43 alloy.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Junak
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Abstract

High-temperature plastic properties of heat-resistant stainless steel X15CrNiSi 20-12 were assessed on the basis of hot tensile tests and nil strength tests. The results were supported by metallographic analyses using SEM and EDX analysis. The formability of the investigated steel can be divided into roughly three temperature areas. In the temperature range of 900°C to about 1050°C, formability was negatively affected by precipitation of carbide particles at grain boundaries. As the temperature rose to 1200°C, these particles dissolved, resulting in an increase in formability. Further temperature increases resulted in a relatively steep drop in formability caused by overheating of the material. The nil ductility temperature of 1280°C and the nil-strength temperature of 1362°C were determined. The Plastic and strength properties of the investigated material were compared with the deformation behavior of the reference steel X5CrNi 18-10, which shows a significantly wider range of suitable forming temperatures.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Kawulok
I. Schindler
H. Navrátil
V. Ševčák
J. Sojka
K. Konečná
B. Chmiel
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Abstract

The paper presents the influence of ZrO2 coating on Ti6Al7Nb titanium alloy depending on the method of deposition. The coatings were made by sol-gel method and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Wettability tests, pitting corrosion assessment and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in the paper. Complementary macro- and microscopic observations, roughness analysis by profilometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were made. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the type of method of depositing the layer on the surface of the material has a significant influence on its properties and that it should be taken into account during the process of the material improvement. Drawing on the findings presented, it can be inferred that roughness has a significant impact upon the surface wetttability of the tested surfaces and their related corrosion resistance. The obtainment of hydrophobic surfaces is for smaller rougidity values.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Woźniak
O. Bialas
M. Adamiak
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Abstract

Research was conducted on welded joints of martensitic steel Thor 115 made with two filler materials – CrMo91 and Ni 6082. The scope of the investigations included: non-destructive and destructive testing. The macro- and microstructural investigations revealed correct structure of the weld, without welding imperfections. In the joint welded with Ni 6082, the so-called Nernst’s layers and δ-ferrite grains were visible. The investigations of the analysed joints showed that their properties, i.e. tensile strength and impact strength, were higher than the required minimum, whereas hardness was lower than the maximum value of 350 HV permitted for this group.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Golański
A. Merda
K. Klimaszewska
M. Urzynicok
J. Słania
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Abstract

The article presents a computational model build with the use of artificial neural networks optimized by genetic algorithm. This model was used to research and prediction of the impact of chemical elements and heat treatment conditions on the mechanical properties of ferrite stainless steel. Optimization has allowed the development of artificial neural networks, which showed a better or comparable prediction result in comparison to un-optimized networks has reduced the number of input variables and has accelerated the calculation speed. The introduced computational model can be applied in industry to reduce the manufacturing costs of materials. It can also simplify material selection when an engineer must properly choose the chemical elements and adequate plastic and/or heat treatment of stainless steels with required mechanical properties.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Honysz
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Abstract

Owing to the excellent properties, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) show great reinforcing ability to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of Al nanocomposites for many automotive applications. In this work, the GNPs dispersion and reinforcing effect in Al nanocomposite was tested. Solvent dispersion via tip sonication and facile low energy ball milling (tumbling milling) using two milling speeds 200 and 300 rpm were employed to develop GNPs/Al powders. Sintering response of the GNPs/Al sintered samples was gauged at two temperatures (550oC and 620oC). The effects of GNPs content, milling rotation speed and sintering temperature on the density, hardness and wear properties of the nanocomposite were examined. The results indicate that relative density % decreases with increasing GNPs content due to possible reagglomeration. The highest hardness of 35.6% and wear rate of 76.68% is achieved in 0.3 wt.% GNPs/Al nanocomposite processed at 300 rpm and 620oC as compared to pure Al due to uniform dispersion, higher diffusion rate at a higher temperature and effective lubrication effect.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zeeshan Baig
Othman Mamat
Mazli Mustapha
Sadaqat Ali
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The aim of this work was to produce a thin SnO2 film by a technique combining the sol-gel method and electrospinning from a solution based on polyvinylpyrrolidone and a tin chloride pentahydrate as a precursor. The spinning solution was subjected to an electrospinning process, and then the obtained nanofiber mats were calcined for 10 h at 500°C. Then, the scanning electron microscopy morphology analysis and chemical composition analysis by X-ray microanalysis of the manufactured thin film was performed. It was shown that an amorphous-crystalline layer formed by the SnO2 nanofiber network was obtained. Based on the UV-Vis spectrum, the width of the energy gap of the obtained layer was determined.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Matysiak
T. Tański
W. Smok
S. Polishchuk
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The paper proposes a method for copper sheet oxidation by using a laser beam. The thickness of the oxide layer increases with temperature growth; therefore, the proper parameters of the experiment such as pulse power, frequency and the speed of the beam were adjusted. High power diode laser was used in the investigations. The topography of the oxidised copper sheets was determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyses. Optical parameters of the deposited layer were characterised by spectrophotometry. Both roughness and thickness of the investigated samples were measured using the confocal laser scanning microscope. The technological recommendations for the laser micro-machining technology to obtain copper sheet oxidation by using the high power laser beam were selected.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Musztyfaga-Staszuk
K. Gawlińska-Nęcek
D. Janicki
P. Panek
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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to formulate physically well founded yield condition for initially anisotropic solids revealing the asymmetry of elastic range. The initial anisotropy occurs in material primarily due to thermo-mechanical pre-processing and plastic deformation during the manufacturing processes. Therefore, materials in the “as-received” state become usually anisotropic. After short account of the known limit criteria for anisotropic solids and discussion of mathematical preliminaries the energy-based criterion for orthotropic materials was formulated and confronted with experimental data and numerical predictions of other theories. Finally, possible simplifications are discussed and certain model of isotropic material with yield condition accounting for a correction of shear strength due to initial anisotropy is presented. The experimental verification is provided and the comparison with existing approach based on the transformed-tensor method is discussed.

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R.B. Pęcherski
A. Rusinek
T. Fras
M. Nowak
Z. Nowak
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This paper presents the results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of the ratcheting for the PA6 aluminum. In the initial determination of the material hardening parameters, the samples were subjected to the symmetrical strain-controlled cyclic tension-compression test. The experimental stress-strain curve was compared with the numerical one obtained for non-linear Frederick-Armstrong and Voce models. For better fitting of both curves, the optimization procedure based on the least-square method and the fuzzy logic was applied. After establishing the hardening parameters, numerical simulations of the ratcheting were made. The boundary value problem was solved by means of discrete analysis. The data (force and displacement) obtained in numerical computations were used to control the ratchetting experiment. The results of experiments and numerical calculations were compared. Good convergence proves the reliability of the determination of material hardening data.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Skrzat
M. Wójcik
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Abstract

Traditional press and sinter processes have gained in the last decades more and more importance in the manufacturing of high volume and precise mechanical components especially in the field of iron based powders. In recent years, the reductions of processing times and temperatures were spotted as critical targets to increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. Electric current assisted sintering (ECAS) technologies have always been seen as an alternative to traditional furnace based sintering techniques and have been the target of different researches with the specific purpose of reducing both operational times and costs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of an innovative process called Electro Sinter Forging (ESF) applied to CuSn15 powders. Thanks to a very short processing time (less than 1 second to densify loose powders), this process is able to retain a very small grain size, thus enhancing mechanical properties of the processed materials. Furthermore, to the authors knowledge, cold – rolled electro – sinter – forged alloys has never been investigated before. First of all, bars were electro – sinter – forged and subsequently characterized in the as sinter – forged condition. The observation of microstructure evidenced an extremely fine microstructure and a reduced degree of porosity. Afterwards, bars were cold rolled after different reduction ratios; macrostructural integrity of the rolled bars was assessed before evaluating the effects of cold rolling on the sinter – forged microstructure.

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Authors and Affiliations

F.S. Gobber
J. Bidulská
A. Fais
F. Franchini
R. Bidulský
T. Kvačkaj
M. Actis Grande
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Abstract

Thin films of crystallized LaCoO3 were grown on Si substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition at different temperatures (750°C, 850°C and 1000°C). The structural characterization of the LaCoO3 thin films was done by combining several techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD). The thin films crystallized in the expected rhombohedral phase whatever the deposition temperature, with an increase of crystallite size from 70 nm at 750°C to 100 nm at 1000°C, and an average thickness of the thin films of less than 200 nm. At 850°C and 1000°C, the thin films are crack-free, and with a lower number of droplets than the film deposited at 750°C. The grains of LaCoO3 film deposited at 850°C are columnar, with a triangular termination. At 1000°C, an intermediate layer of La2Si2O7 was observed, indicating diffusion of Si into the deposited film.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Jędrusik
Ł. Cieniek
A. Kopia
Ch. Turquat
Ch. Leroux
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Abstract

In the paper the multiferroic (ferroelectric-ferromagnetic) composites based on ferroelectromagnetic/ferroelectric (BaFe1/2Nb1/2O3 (BFN)) powder and ferrite powder (zinc-nickel ferrite) were obtained by two technological methods. In the composite samples the ratio of the ferroelectromagnetic/ferroelectric powder to the magnetic powder was equal to 90:10. The ceramic powders were synthesized by the classical technological method using powder calcination/solid state synthesis, while densification of the composite powders (sintering) was carried by two different methods: (i) Free Sintering method (FS), and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS).

At the work, a comparison of measurement results for composite samples obtained by two sintering methods was made. The studies included the following analysis: DTA, XRD, SEM, DC electrical conductivity, electric permittivity and magnetic properties. The result of measurements presented in the work revealed that the ceramic composite obtained by two different technological sintering method (classical technology – Free Sintering method and Spark Plasma Sintering technique) can be promising lead-free materials for functional applications, for example in sensors for magnetic and electric field.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Bochenek
P. Niemiec
D. Brzezińska
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Abstract

Polycrystalline samples BaTiO3 and the solid solutions Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3, Ba0.9Sr0.1Ti0.9Sn0.1O3, Ba0.9Sr0.1Ti0.8Sn0.2O3 were obtained by means of a mechanochemical treatment based on the high-energy ball milling technique and next a high temperature solid state reaction method. The influence of synthesis condition on microstructural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of obtained solid solutions were investigated. The structure and morphology of the investigated samples were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization of electrical properties of the ceramics within the temperature range from –130°C to 250°C were performed by means of a dielectric spectroscopy method at the frequency ranging from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz. The diffusion of the paraelectric – ferroelectric phase transition and dielectric relaxation for ceramic samples are described.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Bąk
P. Dulian
B. Garbarz-Glos
D. Czekaj
A. Lisińska-Czekaj
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Abstract

Goal of the present research was to apply a solid state reaction route to fabricate bismuth layer-structured multiferroic ceramics described with the formula Bi5FeTi3O15 and reveal the influence of processing conditions on its crystal structure and phase composition. Simple oxide powders Bi2O3, TiO2 and Fe2O3 were used to fabricate Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics. Pressureless sintering in ambient air was employed and the sintering temperature was TS = 900°C, TS = 1000°C and TS = 1040°C. The phase composition as well as crystal structure of ceramics sintered at various processing conditions was examined with powder X-ray diffraction method at room temperature. The Rietveld refinement method was applied for analysis of X-ray diffraction data. It was found that ceramics adopted orthorhombic structure Cmc21. The unit cell parameters of bismuth layer-structured multiferroic ceramics increased slightly with an increase in sintering temperature.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Lisińska-Czekaj
D. Czekaj
B. Garbarz-Glos
W. Bąk
I. Kuźniarska-Biernacka
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Abstract

Bismuth niobate (BiNbO4) ceramics were fabricated by mixed oxide method and sintered by presureless sintering method. BiNbO4 ceramics doped with V2O5 additive in amount 0.125 wt%, 0.250 wt% and 1 wt% of was sintered at T = 910°C whereas BiNbO4 ceramics doped with 2 wt% of CuO additive was sintered at T = 890°C and T = 910°C. It was found that V2O5 additive improved morphology of the ceramic samples. However, the chemical composition of BiNbO4 ceramics in relation to bismuth oxide and niobium oxide manifested a tendency of lack of Bi2O3 component. Absorption bands for the BiNbO4 compound were identified. FTIR band positions associated with NbO6 octahedra suggested that the crystal structure changes after V2O5 incorporation.

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Authors and Affiliations

I. Kuźniarska-Biernacka
A. Lisińska-Czekaj
D. Czekaj
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Abstract

Effect of Pb addition on magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn18,75Cu6,25-aPbaGa25 (a = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) alloys was investigated experimentally. The magnetic measurements conducted at low field of 4 kA/m showed that addition of Pb led to separation of the both transformation temperatures and significantly shifted the structural transition effect towards lower temperatures as well as increased the Curie temperature. The analysis of isothermal magnetic curves allowed for the calculation of magnetic entropy change (ΔSM). Although the peak values of |ΔSM| for alloys containing 4 and 5 at.% Pb, ~3 J/(kg*K) and ~1.5 J/(kg*K) respectively, are low they stretch over the structural transformation and Curie temperature, and are at least 30 K wide at half maximum height.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Sielicki
J. Zygmuntowicz
R. Wróblewski
M. Leonowicz
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Abstract

The work three ceramic compositions based on PbZr0.49Ti0.51O3 doped with manganese (Mn), antimony (Sb), lanthanum (La) and tungsten (W) were obtained. The introduction of a set of admixtures was aimed at improving the sinterability of ceramic materials and optimizing its electrophysical parameters. Multi-component materials of the PZT-type with a general formula: ­Pb(Zr0.49Ti0.51)0.94Mn0.021Sb0.016LayWzO3 (where y from 0.008 to 0.012 and z from 0.012 to 0.014) were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method. After mixing and drying the powder mixtures were calcined in air at 850°C for 4 h, while densification of the powders was carried out by the free sintering method at 1150°C for 2 h. The final steps of technology were grinding, polishing, annealing and putting silver paste electrodes onto both surfaces of the samples for electrical testing.

XRD, SEM, EDS, dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric properties and DC electrical conductivity of the obtained ceramic compositions were carried out. X-ray tests of the crystal structure conducted at room temperature have shown that all obtained the PZT-type materials were a single phase (perovskite type) without the presence of a foreign phase. Symmetry of the crystal lattice was identified as space group P4mm. Temperature dielectric studies have shown high values of dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss. The presented physical properties of ceramic samples based on PZT confirm their predisposition for application in modern microelectronic and micromechatronic applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Bochenek
P. Niemiec
E. Ćwikiel
T. Goryczka
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Abstract

The results of research on preparations of alloy Ni-B/B composite coatings produced by chemical reduction method on a carbon steel substrate are collected in this paper. The alloy Ni-B coatings were also investigated for comparative purposes. The produced coatings were subjected to a heat treatment process. The boron powder with the particles size below 1 µm was used as the dispersion phase. The structure of the coatings was examined by X-ray diffraction method. Boron powder particles as well as surface morphology and topography were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The roughness test, microhardness and corrosion resistance by potentiodynamic method and surface wettability tests were carried out. Analysis of the chemical composition by the EDS method showed that the boron powder particles were evenly embedded in the entire volume of the coating. Ni-B/B composite coatings are characterized by higher hardness than alloy Ni-B coatings. As a result of heat treatment, the Ni3B phase crystallized, which increased the hardness of the coating material. The incorporation of boron powder particles and heat treatment reduce the corrosion resistance of coatings. All produced coatings exhibited hydrophobic properties.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Mazurek
W. Bartoszek
G. Cieślak
A. Gajewska-Midziałek
D. Oleszak
M. Trzaska
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Abstract

This paper describes preparation methodology and research results of newly developed materials from post-production fibrous waste that are resistant to high temperatures. Widely available raw materials were used for this purpose. Such approach has significant impact on the technological feasibility and preparation costs. Obtained materials were verified via applying of various tests including characterization of shrinkage, porosity, density and water absorption as well as X-ray analysis (XRD), followed by mechanical bending and compressive strength determination.

Based on the research results, the possible applications of materials as thermal insulators were indicated.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Kogut
K. Kasprzyk
R. Kłoś
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Abstract

In this paper the development and method of production of modern, Ni-free sintered structural steels containing Cr, Mn and Mo, enabling the production of structural sintered steels in industrial conditions, using safe, with low H2-content, sintering atmospheres is presented. For this purpose, the analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of these sintered structural steels produced in different processing conditions and also the connections between the microstructure of sintered material and its mechanical properties, was presented. Following the investigations, the appropriate chemical composition of sintered Ni-free steels with properties which are comparable or even better than those of sintered structural steels containing rich and carcinogenic nickel was choosen. Additionally, in the paper the properties of electrolitically coated carbon steels were presented, as the beginning of investigation for improving the mechanical properties of alloyed, structural sintered steels.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Sułowski
M. Tenerowicz-Żaba
R. Valov
V. Petkov
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In the present time, advanced high strength steel (AHSS) has secured a dominant place in the automobile sector due to its high strength and good toughness along with the reduced weight of car body which results in increased fuel efficiency, controlled emission of greenhouse gases and increased passengers’ safety. In the present study, four new advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been developed using three different processing routes, i.e., thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP), quenching treatment (QT), and quenching & tempering (Q&T) processes, respectively. The current steels have achieved a better combination of the high level of strength with reasonable ductility in case of TMCP as compared to the other processing conditions. The achievable ultrahigh strength is primarily attributed to mixed microstructure comprising lower bainite and lath martensite as well as grain refinement and precipitation hardening.

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G. Mandal
S.K. Ghosh
S. Chatterjee
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Abstract

A mechanistic exposure experiment was performed on the commercially available and welded Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe alloy samples used in the piping materials of the coal gasification pilot plant. Thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams were constructed to provide insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior. The thermodynamic inference on the corrosion mechanism was supplemented with the morphological, compositional and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. X-ray diffraction result revealed stable corrosion products of NiO, MoNi4 and Cr4.6MoNi2.1 after accumulated total exposure duration of 139 h to the corrosive atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy positively identified formation of rather continuous and adherent pre-oxidation corrosion products although extensively peeled-off oxides were finally observed as corrosion scales on the post-exposure alloy samples, which were attributed to the chlorination/oxidation into thin (spalled) oxides.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sungkyu Lee
Min Jung Kim
Nuri Choi
Sang Yeon Hwang
Seok-Woo Chung
Seung-Jong Lee
Yongseung Yun
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Abstract

Multiferroic six-layer Aurivillius type Bi7Fe3Ti3O21 ceramics was obtained by conventional mixed oxides method. The final sintering process was taken in several different sintering times, which determined changes in properties of discussed ceramic material. The structure and dielectric properties of the material are reported. In order to examine the technological conditions on the crystal structure, XRD analysis was carried out. The microstructure, as well as the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the chemical composition were investigated by scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersion spectrometer. The main purpose of the paper is to present the effect of sintering time on the microstructure, crystallographic structure and dielectric properties of Bi7Fe3Ti3O21 ceramics.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Szalbot
J.A. Bartkowska
K. Feliksik
M. Bara
M. Chrunik
M. Adamczyk-Habrajska
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Abstract

In this work, gel-casting of foams method was used to produce ZrO2 porous ceramics. The obtained foams with total porosity of 89.5 vol% were composed of approximately spherical cells having the mean diameter of 537 ± 153 μm interconnected by circular cell windows having the mean diameter of 152 ± 82 μm. Next, the ZrO2 foams were coated with fluorapatite (FA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) layers by slurry infiltration. The intermediate fluorapatite (FA) layer was introduced to prevent the chemical reactions between ZrO2 and HA at high temperatures during sintering process. The ZrO2 samples containing only HA coatings, were also tested, for comparison. The obtained ceramic biomaterials were subjected to in vitro tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The results show that the ZrO2 foams with FA/HA layers possessed better bioactivity than the foams with the HA/HA coating.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Potoczek
E. Kocyło
M. Krauz
A. Tłuczek
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Abstract

Two types of composites, consisting of pure magnesium matrix reinforced with two commercially used carbon fibers, were systematically studied in this paper. The composites fabricated by the pressure infiltration method, were subjected to quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Morphology of fiber strands was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The application of carbon fibre reinforcement led to the stiffening of tested materials, resulting in the limitation of the possible compression to approx. 2.5%. The performed tests revealed the remarkable difference in compression strength of investigated compositions. The cause of that effect was that GRANOC fiber reinforced composite exhibited insufficient bond quality between the brittle fibers and the ductile matrix. T300 reinforced composite presented good connection between reinforcement and matrix resulting in increased mechanical properties. Investigated composites demonstrated higher mechanical strength during deformation at high strain rates. Microscopic observations also proved that the latter fibers with regular shape and dense packaging within the filaments are proper reinforcement when designing the lightweight composite material.

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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Ranachowski
P. Ranachowski
A. Brodecki
M. Kopeć
S. Kudela Jr
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Abstract

It has been shown that the precipitation of bismuth orthovanadate from a fly ash leachate is a promising method of vanadium recovery. BiVO4 obtained after appropriate heat treatment can be sold as a pigment. The yield of recovery of solubilised vanadium is equal to 68% and the precipitate is free from nickel impurity. The precipitate is insoluble in the solutions with pH ≥ 3. In more acidic media the solubility of precipitate increases with the decreasing pH. The solubility of the precipitate increases also with the increasing concentration of chloride ions.

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P. Kwolek
K. Czubajewski
M. Wojnicki
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Abstract

Crystal structure and phase composition of stainless steel substrates (AISI 304 type) was studied and it was found that they adopted the cubic symmetry. The calculated elementary cell parameter for the mayor Fe-Ni phase (weight fraction 99%) was a = 3.593 Å, whereas the mean grain size was <D> = 2932 Å. Morphology of the stainless steel substrate surface was studied with profilometry. Mechanical properties of the stainless steel substrates and stainless steel substrates coated with ceramic layer of barium strontium titanate were studied with microhardness tester. For measurements performed according to the Vickers method the average microhardness was found HV = 189 or HV = 186 for the “in-line” and “mapping” measurement pattern, respectively. The sol-gel method was used to coat the surface of the stainless steel substrate with a thin ceramic layer of the chemical composition Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3. It was found that the stainless steel substrate covered with sol-gel deposited ceramic coating exhibited the average hardness within the range HV = 217 up to HV = 235 for loading force F = 98 mN and F = 0.98 N, respectively. The Knopp method was also used and it was found that the stainless steel substrate with Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 coating exhibited hardness HK = 386.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Czekaj
A. Lisińska-Czekaj
K. Krzysztofowicz
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Abstract

The Nb-Si based in-situ composite was produced by resistive sintering (RS) technique. In order to identify present phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used on the composite. XRD analysis revealed that the composite was composed of Nb solid solution (Nbss) and α-Nb5Si3 phases. The microstructure of the composite was characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed for the micro-analysis of the chemical species. SEM-EDS analyses show that the microstructure of composite consists of Nbss, Nb5Si3 and small volume fraction of Ti-rich Nbss phases. The micro hardness of constituent phases of the composite was found to be as 593±19 and 1408±33 Hv0.1, respectively and its relative density was % 98.54.

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Y. Garip
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Abstract

Thermodynamic description of the Fe-B-C system in its iron-rich corner is developed in the context of a new Fe-B-X (X = Cr, Ni, Mn, Si, Ti, V, C) database. The thermodynamic parameters of the binary sub-systems, Fe-B, Fe-C and B-C, are taken from earlier assessments modifying the B-C description. The parameters of the Fe-B-C system are optimized in this study using experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data from the literature. Liquid, beta-rhombo-B and graphite phases are described using the substitutional solution model, while the ferrite (bcc), the austenite (fcc), the cementite (M3C) and the M23C6 phases are described with the sublattice model and the borides, Fe2B, FeB and B4C, are treated as stoichiometric phases. A good correlation was obtained between the calculated and the experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data. The description is recommended to be used at the composition region of wt% C + wt% B < 15 and at temperatures below 2700oC.

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J. Miettinen
V.-V. Visuri
T. Fabritius
G. Vassilev
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the nano size SiC ceramic particles. The type and size of the ceramic particles or organic additives used play a important role during electrodeposition processes. A Watts type galvanic bath with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide, dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate, tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane and hexamethyldisilizane. The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. The work concerns the determination of the impact of the change in the zeta potential of SiC nanoceramic particles used on properties of composite coatings (wear resistance, corrosion, etc.). The paper characterized the composite nickel coatings on aluminum alloy using SEM techniques, wear resistance tests by TABER method and coating adhesion to the substrate using the “scratch test” method. The corrosion resistance of coatings was also tested using electrochemical methods. The research allowed to determine the effect of SiC nanoceramic particle size on the value of the zeta potential in the model KCl solution.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Nowak
J. Mizera
A. Kłyszewski
A. Dobkowska
S. Boczkal
A. Kozik
P. Koprowski
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Abstract

The paper presents the effect of deformation temperature on the mechanical stability of retained austenite in a multiphase TRIP steel. Series of static tensile tests were carried out in the temperature range –20 to 140°C in order to simulate the temperatures occurring during stamping process of automotive steel sheets and conditions of their exploitation. Samples deformed at 20°C and 60°C showed the best combination of strength and ductility. It was related to the gradual transformation of retained austenite into martensite. Obtained results revealed that the intensity of TRIP effect is significantly related to the deformation temperature. The amount of retained austenite, which transformed into martensite during plastic deformation decreases as the deformation temperature increases. It was also found that the stability of retained austenite depends on its morphology. The obtained results showed the relationship between deformation temperature and the stability of retained austenite. The chemical composition and microstructure of multiphase steels dedicated to the automotive industry should be designed for providing the maximum TRIP effect at the specific deformation temperatures.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Skowronek
A. Kozłowska
A. Grajcar
M. Morawiec
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Abstract

Production processes of hot forging most often look similar [1-3]. Forging in several operations, usually in three or four. Most often the first operation is upsetting or flattening (sometimes rolling). The last operation is finishing forging. This applies to the production of steel forgings for the automotive, agricultural and other similar industries. Typical production proceeds as follows: the forgings are cleaned (shot-blasted) and then heat treatment is performed. It can be normalization, hardening and tempering, etc. After the heat treatment, forgings are checked and subjected to strength and microscopic tests, hardness tests, impact tests. The type of tests depends on the recipient. The process described in the work takes place in three operations. The heat treatment used so far is hardening and tempering. An attempt was made to change the heat treatment technology for a selected product made of 42CrMo4 steel (1.7225) (4140). An isothermal annealing test was carried out at different temperatures and for different times. The possibility of using heat from the forging process in heat treatment processes for the described product has been confirmed.

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M. Zwierzchowski
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Abstract

The paper describes modification to Fm3–m (space group no. 225) lattice of aluminium based α-solid solution observed in Zn-Al alloys required to properly correlate quantitative data from X-ray diffraction analysis with results obtained from quantitative scanning electron microscopy image analysis and those predicted from Zn-Al binary phase diagram. Results suggests that 14 at.% of Zn as a solute atom should be introduced in crystal lattice of aluminium to obtain correct estimation of phase quantities determined by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that this modification holds for Cu mould cast as well as annealed and water-cooled samples of Zn-3wt.%. Al and Zn-5wt.% Al.

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P. Gogola
Z. Gabalcová
H. Suchánek
M. Babinec
M. Bonek
M. Kusý
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Abstract

The present research is focused on the characterization of the composites from Al2O3-Cu-Ni system. Two methods of ceramic-metal composite forming were applied: uniaxial powder pressing and Pulse Plasma Sintering (PPS). To obtain the samples the powder mixtures containing 85 vol.% of Al2O3 and 15 vol.% of metal powders were used. Influence of the sintering process on microstructure and mechanical properties of the two series of the composites was analyzed in detail. The selected physical properties of samples were characterized by Archimedes immersion method. Vickers hardness and the fracture toughness of the composites was determined as well. The microstructure of the composites was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX. Fractography investigation was carried out as well. Independently on composite production method Al2O3, Cu, Ni, and CuNi phases were revealed. Fractography investigation results revealed different character of fracture in dependence of fabrication method. Pulse Plasma Sintered samples were characterized by higher crack resistance and higher Vickers hardness in comparison to the specimens manufactured by uniaxial pressing.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Zygmuntowicz
M. Wachowski
P. Piotrkiewicz
W. Kaszuwara
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of obtaining and investigations of Pb1–xBax(Zr1–yTiy)1–zSnzO3 (PBZTS) ceramics with constant x = 0.03 and y = 0.02, and variable z = 0, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 (abbreviations of the samples were following PBZTS0, PBZTS4, PBZTS6, PBZTS8, respectively). The investigated compositions are close to rhombohedral-orthorhombic morphotropic phase boundary. The ceramic samples have been obtained by conventional ceramic technology from simple oxides PbO, ZrO2, TiO2, SnO2 and barium carbonate BaCO3. The ceramic powders, after calcination, have been pressed into discs and sintered using free sintering (FS) method. For samples obtained in such a way, the dielectric properties at various frequencies and electrical conductivity have been investigated. The increase of Sn content orders the microstructure of ceramics, and as a result the improvement of the dielectric properties of ceramic samples can be obtained.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Brzezińska

Editorial office

EDITORIAL BOARD

Editor-in-Chief:

Paweł Zięba, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Editors:

Krzysztof Fitzner, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Bogusław Major, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Przemysław Fima, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

Piotr Bała, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Leszek Blacha, Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Zbigniew Bojar, Military University of Technology, Poland

Eduardo Cesari, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain

Kyu Rhee Chang, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Korea

Jan Dusza, Institute of Materials Research, SAS, Slovakia

Władysław Gąsior, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Zbigniew Gronostajski, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

Edward Guzik, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Peter D. Hodgson, Deakin University, Australia

Herbert Ipser, University of Vienna, Austria

George Kaptay, Research Institute on Nanotechnology, Hungary

Alexandre Kodentsov, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Rafał Kozubski, Jagiellonian University, Poland

Aleš Kroupa, Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, Czech Republic

Piotr Kula, Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Jan Kusiński, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Roman Kuziak, Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Poland

Jüergen Lackner, Laser Center Leoben, Joanneum Research, Austria

Kee Ahn Lee, Inha University, Korea

Marcin Leonowicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Jerzy Lis, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Leszek B. Magalas, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Graeme E. Murch, University of Newcastle, Australia

Alberto Passerone, Institute of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Italy

Henryk Paul, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Maciej Pietrzyk, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Eugen Rabkin, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel

Amir Shirzadi, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jerzy Sobczak, Foundry Research Institute, Poland

Boris B. Straumal, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Pekka Taskinen, Aalto University, Finland

Stefan Zaefferer, Max-Planck-Institut, Germany

Ehrenfried Zschech, Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing, Germany

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Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015).

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015).

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8] https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/crystallographic-databases, accessed: 17.04.2017

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[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

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