The population structure, seasonal and diel changes in vertical distribution of two siphonophore species, Dimophyes arctica and Pyrostephos vanhoeffeni , in Croker Passage (Antarctic Peninsula) are examined, and compared with the results obtained by other au− thors in various oceanic areas. Zooplankton samples were taken at discrete depth intervals between 0 and 1200 m during day and night shifts, in both summer and winter seasons. Dimophyes arctica was present both in polygastric and eudoxid forms, with the latter being dominant throughout the entire study period. The results obtained demonstrate that Antarctic waters clearly enhance the reproductive ability of this species when compared with specimens from other oceanic regions. Maximum densities of Dimophyes arctica were recorded in December in the 200–400 m depth horizon. However, high concentrations of eudoxids were also recorded at deeper parts of the water column. Pyrostephos vanhoeffeni was, in contrast, most abundant in autumn and winter, and both species were found to proliferate and disperse or sink further down the water column during autumn and winter. Daily vertical migration was observed only during the summer period.
Dynamic climate changes have become noticeable in recent decades, especially in the vulnerable region of the West Antarctic. The relatively simple food web of this area relies on krill – Euphausia superba . Presumably, as a result of climatic fluctuations, a de− crease in the number of this crustacean has been recorded, followed by an increase in the population of the gelatinous zooplankter Salpa thompsoni . In the research presented herein, population and morphometric analyses of Salpa thompsoni have been conducted. Specimens for this research were collected from the Drake Passage, using a Bongo net in the summer season of 2010. It has been found that the horizontal distribution of this gelatinous zooplankter was significantly irregular (Kruskal−Wallis test, p < 0.001). In the northern part of the investigated area, both blastozooids and oozooids were recorded, which confirms the dynamic development of this species. The central part of the Drake Passage was characterized by the dominance of blastozooids, with embryos found at different stages of the development. Only in the region of the South Shetland Islands, the salpid population was characterized by reduced or even stopped reproduction. The immense reproductive efficiency observed in the Salpa thompsoni population was mostly induced by the favourable thermal conditions. These observations may suggest that the ongoing climat changes in the West Antarctic will promote the population expansion of this species.
Planktonie material was taken in stratified hauls in the water column between King George and Elephant Islands, during the austral spring 1986. The species composition of Copepoda was diversified (abt. 50 taxa). Most frequent and abundant were M. gerlachei, C. acutus, R. gigas, small copepods of the family Pseudocalanidae and Cyclopoida. Interzonal Copepoda did not yet reach the euphotic zone; a comparatively low general copepod abundance and the advanced ontogenetic development in particular populations evidenced for the early spring phase of the planktonie community.
Planktonie material was collected at 63 samling stations during the BIOMASS-SIBEX cruise of the r/v "Profesor Siedlecki". Samples were collected with a Bango-505 net in the water column from the sea surface downwards to a depth of about 200 m. Throughout the research area most numerous were the following typically Antarctic species: Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Rhincalanus gigas, and Metridia gerlachei. The abundance of the last one was several times higher that of other species. At the time of the investigations the animals were in the final stage of invidual development and in readiness for reproduction.
During the BIOMASS-SIBEX Antarctic expedition the distribution of Copepoda in three water layers (0—100, 100—300 and 300—500 m) in the Bransfield Strait and southern Drake Passage was studied. Altogether 46 taxa were recorded (Tabs. 1 and 2); the number of taxa increased with depth. Faunistic differences between the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait were observed. In some species the age-related splitting of the populations was registered (Figs. 2, 3 and 4). Young generations occupied usually the upper water layers.
Materials used in this work were collected during BIOM ASS - SIBEX project in the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait (1983/1984) in three water layers: 0 - 100 m, 100 — 300 m and 300—500 m. Four species of Chaetognatha were found: Eukrohnia hamata and Sagitta gazellae in both water regions; Sagitta planctonis occurred mainly in the Drake Passage whereas Sagitta marri was noted in the Bransfield Strait and adjacent parts of the Bellingshausen and Scotia seas. Chaetognatha were most numerous in the Drake Passage and generally in the layer 100 — 300 m. Vertical distribution of Chaetognatha was clearly influenced hydrological conditions.
The distribution of planktonic Ostracoda (Halocyprididae) was studied based on vertically-stratified zooplankton samples collected by hauling 200 p.m - mesh net by day and by night during two austral seasons: summer 1985/1986 and winter 1989, from the 1200 m deep Croker Passage off the Antarctic Peninsula. Seven species of Ostracoda were recorded: Alacia belgicae, Alacia hettacra, Melaconchoecia isocheira, Metaconchoecia skogsbergi, Boroecia antipoda, Disconchoecia aff. elegans and Proceroecia brachyaskos. The first three species, endemic to Antarctic waters, were predominant (about 90%). Generally Ostracoda were most numerous in 600-200 m layer in summer and in 1000-400 m layer in winter. In the investigated area there was a clear contrast between the abundance of Ostracoda during austral summer and scarcity during austral winter.
The material discussed in this paper was collected in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait (Antarctica) within the framework of the BIOMASS-SIBEX programme. Samples were collected by hauling Nansen nets verticaly through the 100 — 0, 300—100 and 500 — 300 m layers in December 1983 and January 1984. Of the six species recorded — Metaconchoecia isocheira, Alacia hettacra, Alacia belgicae, Metaconchoecia skogsbergi, Boroecia antipoda and Discoconchoecia off. elegans — the first three, endemic to Antarctic waters — were predominant (92.9%). Ostracoda were found most abundantly in the eastern part of the study area — between Elephant Island and South Orkney Islands, and in the south-western part of Bransfield Strait. Their vertical distribution depended on the hydrological conditions. Ostracoda were most numerous in the 500—300 m and 300 — 100 m layers; very few were recorded in the 100—0 m surface layer.
Macrozooplankton was caught at 17 stations with a Bongo net from the 0-200 m layer. The stations were located near the pack ice edge, between Elephant Islands and the South Orkney Islands. The cluster analysis of 58 recognized taxa allowed to distinguish three regions: the western — near Elephant Island, the middle and the western one — at the South Orkney Islands. No clear difference in macrozooplankton species composition at the open sea stations and those near pack ice was found. The average biomass of macrozooplankton in the investigated area amounted to 82.8 g/1000 m3 (95% CL: 47.2-94.2 g/1000m3). Macrozooplankton was dominated by salps and krill. The biomass and 95% confidence limits were 52.0 g/1000 m3 (15.6-59.2 g/1000 m3) and 26.1 g/1000 m3 (8.4-30.4 g/1000 m3), respectively. Differences in the biomass distribution of some taxa in three distinguished regions were observed. Except of salps the biomass of particular taxa caught near the pack ice edge and the same taxa caught in stations distant from this edge were similar. The biomass of salps was evidently higher in most northern stations.
Material for this paper was collected during the BIOMASS-SIBEX research programme, and consisted of 97 samples taken at 47 stations in Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait (Antarctica). The samples were taken by hauling Nansen nets vertically through the 0-100, 100 - 300 and 300 - 500 m layers at the end of December 1983 and the beginning of January 1984. Four Chaetognatha species were recorded in the study region: Eukrohnia hamata, Sagitta gazellae, Sagitta mari and Sagitta planctonis. The population structures of the dominant species E. hamata and also S. gazellae were analyzed in the context of the region's hydrology. Certain regularities are apparent in the distribution of the developmental stages of E. hamata in water column. Mature specimens of this species inhabit deeper waters than juveniles. The highest proportions of juveniles in the entire population of E. hamata were recorded in slightly warmer waters.
Macrozooplankton was collected at 63 stations by means of a Bongo sampler in the layer from the surface to a depth of 200 m. Wet formalin volume of siphonophors, polychaetes, pteropods, copepods, amphipods, euphausiids, chaetognaths, salps, and the remaining animals was determined; the distribution of major species was presented. Low diversity in macrozooplankton composition was observed in the study area. As far as biomass was concerned, salps predominated in the whole area; they occurred in exceptionally large quantities Large amounts of krill were also observed in some areas. Besides salps and krill, other euphausiids had the greatest share in the zooplankton; they were more abundant than copepods. Macrozooplankton biomass without salps and krill was low when compared with the values known from literature.
Sixty seven zooplankton taxa were recorded in a total of 5 WP-2 net vertical hauls carried out in a year round cycle in Admiralty Bay. Copepoda were the most common and abundant group and Oithona similis was the dominant species throughout the area. Polychaeta, Ostracoda and Chaetognatha were also rather common and abundant. Euphausiacea, Amphi-poda and Salpae occured mainly in the central part and the outlet area of the bay. No differences in zooplankton assemblages diversity in the four investigated areas of Admiralty Bay were encountered. However, distinct differences in species richness between the zooplankton of Ezcurra Inlet and the main basin of the bay were observed. The composition of zooplankton was rather stable throughout the year, but seasonal occurrences of larvae of Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echino-dermata and Ascidiacea were noted. A Ust of the 174 zooplankton taxa ever found in Admiralty Bay is presented by combining the present results with the existing scientific data.
Zooplankton community composition, abundance and biomass from two polar localities – Kongsfjorden (Arctic) and Admiralty Bay (Antarctic) is compared. The community composition of zooplankton in both polar regions included similar taxonomic groups and the diversity at the species level was similar. Even though the overall species composition was different, some species were common for both ecosystems, for example Oithona similis, Microcalanus pygmaeus or Eukrohnia hamata. The abundance and biomass of the main zooplankton components (Copepoda) differed greatly between the two ecosystems, both being of an order of magnitude higher in Kongsfjorden than in Admiralty Bay. Kongsfjorden is situated at the border of two regions what induces high productivity with copepods playing an important role, and there is also a strong advection into the fjord. Admiralty Bay is adjacent to the homogenous Antarctic oceanic ecosystem; some advection into the bay occurs as an effect of tide and wind driven processes. Antarctic krill, which was not included in the present study, occupies most of the primary consumers niche and replaces copepods at the second trophic level.