This paper models income distribution in four Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic) in 1990s and 2000s using parametric models of income distribution. In particular, we use the generalized beta distribution of the second kind (GB2), which has been found in the previous literature to give an excellent fit to income distributions across time and countries. We have found that for Poland and Hungary, the GB2 model fits the data better than its nested alternatives (the Dagum and Singh-Maddala distributions). However, for Czech Republic and Slovak Republic the Dagum model is as good as the GB2 and may be preferred due to its simpler functional form. The paper also found that the tails of parametric income distribution in the Czech Republic, Poland and the Slovak Republic have become fatter in the course of transformation to market economy, which provides evidence for growing income bi-polarization in these societies. Statistical inference on changes in income inequality based on parametric Lorenz dominance suggests that, independently of inequality index used, income inequality in the Czech Republic, Poland and the Slovak Republic has increased during transformation. For Hungary, there is no Lorenz dominance and conclusions about the direction of changes in income inequality depend on the cardinal inequality measure used.
Bezludne wyspy pojawiają się w dwóch tekstach Gilles’a Deleuze’a. Pierwszy z nich to krótki esej z lat 50. pt. Causes et raisons des îles désertes, drugi to appendyx do Logiki sensu – Michel Tournier i świat bez bliźniego z roku 1969. Rekonstrukcji drugiego z tych tekstów dokonał Jakub Tercz w artykule Bliźni w filozofii Deleuze’a („Przegląd Filozoficzny” 2015, nr 1). Doceniam tę pracę, chociaż nie podzielam jej wniosków. Za problemy z właściwą interpretacją pojęcia bliźniego (i jego „zniknięcia”) w dużej mierze odpowiada sam Deleuze. Jego lektura powieści M. Tourniera Piętaszek czyli otchłanie Pacyfiku, bazująca na kategoriach transcendentalnych, intersubiektywnych struktur, zapoznaje obecne tam materialistyczne potencjały. Pod tym względem bardziej obiecujący – choć zarazem ezopowy i ezoteryczny – wydaje się wcześniejszy ze wspomnianych tekstów Deleuze’a. Rozpoznaje on, że w historii Robinsona obecne są także stawki polityczne, a jego mit daje się czytać, a nawet należy to robić, w sposób krytyczny (w marksowskim, a nie w kantowskim sensie). Dlatego w ostatniej części artykułu oddaję głos Tournierowi i jego Piętaszkowi, aby razem z nimi pomyśleć bardziej immanentystyczną i obfitszą w linie ujścia teorię robinsonady.
In the article the author discusses peculiarities of three areas of psychologists’ professional activity: conducting scientific research, educating new generations of psychologists, and having a private practice. He particularly stresses the significance of empirical testability of theories for correct and ethical assessment practice (according to Evidence-Based Assessment standard) and therapeutic practice (according to Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology standard). The author also explores the cultural immersion of psychological activity.
In this article, an outline of the key questions connected with the essential problems of energy-consumption of air-stream moulding machines has been presented. Research results and calculations of requisite parameters appraisable of energy-consumption of air-stream moulding machines have been supplemented also by the data analysis of offer of the moulding machines manufacturers. The attention on constructional and technological factors which are favourable for the diminution of energy-consuming of the moulding process has been paid.
The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.
In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems).
This study summarises the research efforts undertaken in iron foundry plants in which the process are mostly automated and mechanised. The research program was limited in scope, focusing on causes of surface defects in castings products that are attributable to the bentonite-containing sand and the mould system. One of the potential roots of surface defects is heterogeneity of sand grains, containing lumped ball-shaped grains and irregular pellets with a layered-structure. The moisture contents of those lumped grains is different than the moisture level required in the process, besides these grains may contain various elements and metallic compounds which, when cast into moulds, may react with molten metals in an uncontrolled manner. As a result, surface defects are produced, such as surface blowholes, burst penetration, sand holes, slag inclusions, pinhole porosity. This study investigated the efficiency of key sand preparation and moulding machines and installations integrated into the casting process line. The efficiency of machines and installations is defined in terms of quality parameters of sand mix and moulds, which are associated with the emergence of surface defects on castings.
Design of a compressed air system is a complex issue, involving the design of structures formed by the air sources, air receptors and installations connecting all structure components. Another major task is to ensure the required quality of compressed air. The paper briefly outlines the methodology of integrated and network structure design, using an objective function to find the optimal solution. In terms of quality assurance, the technological aspects of compressed air generation, treatment and distribution are defined.
Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant parameters are associated with the geometry of turbine components and the level of its integration with the separator system. The circulation of the blasting medium becomes the integrating factor of the process line, starting from the hopper, through the propeller turbine, casting treatment, separation of contaminated abrasive mixture, to its recycling and reuse. Inferior quality of the abrasive agent (shot) and insufficient purity of the abrasive mixture are responsible for low effectiveness of shot blasting. However, most practitioners fail to fully recognize the importance of proper diagnostics of the shot blasting process in industrial conditions. The wearing of major machine components and of the blasting agent and quality of shot treated surfaces are often misinterpreted, hence the need to take into account all factors involved in the process within the frame of a comprehensive methodology. This paper is an attempt to formulate and apply the available testing methods to the engineering practice in industrial conditions.