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Number of results: 27
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Abstract

A substantial quantity of research on muffler design has been restricted to a low frequency range using the plane wave theory. Based on this theory, which is a one-dimensional wave, no higher order wave has been considered. This has resulted in underestimating acoustical performances at higher frequencies when doing muffler analysis via the plane wave model. To overcome the above drawbacks, researchers have assessed a three-dimensional wave propagating for a simple expansion chamber muffler. Therefore, the acoustic effect of a higher order wave (a high frequency wave) is considered here. Unfortunately, there has been scant research on expansion chamber mufflers equipped with baffle plates that enhance noise elimination using a higher-order-mode analysis. Also, space-constrained conditions of industrial muffler designs have never been properly addressed. So, in order to improve the acoustical performance of an expansion chamber muffler within a constrained space, the optimization of an expansion chamber muffler hybridized with multiple baffle plates will be assessed. In this paper, the acoustical model of the expansion chamber muffler will be established by assuming that it is a rigid rectangular tube driven by a piston along the tube wall. Using an eigenfunction (higher-order-mode analysis), a four-pole system matrix for evaluating acoustic performance (STL) is derived. To improve the acoustic performance of the expansion chamber muffler, three kinds of expansion chamber mufflers (KA-KC) with different acoustic mechanisms are introduced and optimized for a targeted tone using a genetic algorithm (GA). Before the optimization process is performed, the higher-order-mode mathematical models of three expansion chamber mufflers (A-C) with various allocations of inlets/outlets and various chambers are also confirmed for accuracy. Results reveal that the STL of the expansion chamber mufflers at the targeted tone has been largely improved and the acoustic performance of a reverse expansion chamber muffler is more efficient than that of a straight expansion chamber muffler. Moreover, the STL of the expansion chamber mufflers will increase as the number of the chambers that separate with baffles increases.
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Abstract

Shape optimization on mufflers within a limited space volume is essential for industry, where the equipment layout is occasionally tight and the available space for a muffler is limited for maintenance and operation purposes. To proficiently enhance the acoustical performance within a constrained space, the selection of an appropriate acoustical mechanism and optimizer becomes crucial. A multi-chamber side muffler hybridized with reverse-flow ducts which can visibly increase the acoustical performance is rarely addressed; therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to numerically analyze and maximize the acoustical performance of this muffler within a limited space. In this paper, the four-pole system matrix for evaluating the acoustic performance - sound transmission loss (STL) - is derived by using a decoupled numerical method. Moreover, a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, a robust scheme in searching for the global optimum by imitating the softening process of metal, has been used during the optimization process. Before dealing with a broadband noise, the STL's maximization with respect to a one-tone noise is introduced for the reliability check on the SA method. Moreover, the accuracy check of the mathematical models with respect to various acoustical elements is performed. The optimal result in eliminating broadband noise reveals that the multi-chamber muffler with reverse-flow perforated ducts is excellent for noise reduction. Consequently, the approach used for the optimal design of the noise elimination proposed in this study is easy and effective.
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Abstract

The Mn-Zn ferrite powders prepared by high energy ball milling were heat-treated, subsequently compacted and sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Based on the observation of microstructure, the characteristics of samples after SPS were investigated and compared with ones after conventional sintering. The size of initial powders was approximately 650 nm and decreased to 230 nm after milling at 300 rpm for 3 h. After heat treatment at 973K for 1h, the milled powders became larger to approximately 550 nm in size again and the peaks of Mn2O3 disappeared in XRD patterns. In the samples after SPS, the Fe2O3 and MnZnFe2O4 phases decomposed at the higher temperatures than 1173K and 1373K, respectively, while only MnZnFe2O4 phase was detected in the samples conventionally sintered at 1273~1673K. As the sintering temperature increased, the relative density after SPS increased more quickly than that after conventional sintering. In particular, it reached approximately 99% after SPS at 1473K.
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Abstract

In order to enhance the acoustical performance of a traditional straight-path automobile muffler, a multi-chamber muffler having reverse paths is presented. Here, the muffler is composed of two internally parallel/extended tubes and one internally extended outlet. In addition, to prevent noise transmission from the muffler’s casing, the muffler’s shell is also lined with sound absorbing material. Because the geometry of an automotive muffler is complicated, using an analytic method to predict a muffler’s acoustical performance is difficult; therefore, COMSOL, a finite element analysis software, is adopted to estimate the automotive muffler’s sound transmission loss. However, optimizing the shape of a complicated muffler using an optimizer linked to the Finite Element Method (FEM) is time-consuming. Therefore, in order to facilitate the muffler’s optimization, a simplified mathematical model used as an objective function (or fitness function) during the optimization process is presented. Here, the objective function can be established by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in conjunction with the muffler’s design parameters and related TLs (simulated by FEM). With this, the muffler’s optimization can proceed by linking the objective function to an optimizer, a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Consequently, the discharged muffler which is optimally shaped will improve the automotive exhaust noise.
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Abstract

In this study, two different compositions of submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and micron-structured chromium (4.66 μm) powders were mixed to fabricate Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys by vacuum hot-press sintering. The research imposed various hot-press sintering pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while the sintering temperature maintained at 1250°C for 1 h. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of the hot-press sintered Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were 1250°C at 50 MPa for 1 h. Also, the relative density reached 99.94%, the closed porosity decreased to 0.04% and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increased to 81.90 HRA and 448.53 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced to 1.58 × 104 S·cm–1. However, the grain growth generated during the high-temperature and high-pressure of the hot-press sintering process resulted in the grain coarsening phenomenon of the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys after 1250°C hot-press sintering at 50 MPa for 1 h. In addition, the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were fabricated with the submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (588 nm) powders showed more effective compaction than the micron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (4.66 μm) powders did. The closed porosity decreases to 0.02% and the hardness values increase to 83.23 HRA. However, the agglomeration phenomenon of the Cr phase and brittleness of the TiCr2 Laves phases easily led to a slight decrease in TRS (400.54 MPa).
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Abstract

Based on the theory of heat transfer, the influence of expansion joints on the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining is discussed. In view of the current expansion joint, the mathematical model of heat transfer and the three dimensional finite element model of ladle lining brick are established. By analyzing the temperature and stress distribution of ladle lining brick when the expansion joints are in different sizes, the thermal mechanical stress caused by the severe temperature difference can be reduced by the suitable expansion joint of the lining brick during the ladle baking and working process. The analysis results showed that the thermal mechanical stress which is caused by thermal expansion can be released through the 2 mm expansion joint, which is set in the building process. So we can effectively reduce the thermal mechanical stress of the ladle lining, and there is no risk of steel leakage, thus the service life of ladle can be effectively prolonged.
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Abstract

The paper is an exploration of the optimal design parameters of a space-constrained electromagnetic vibration-based generator. An electromagnetic energy harvester is composed of a coiled polyoxymethylen circular shell, a cylindrical NdFeB magnet, and a pair of helical springs. The magnet is vertically confined between the helical springs that serve as a vibrator. The electrical power connected to the coil is actuated when the energy harvester is vibrated by an external force causing the vibrator to periodically move through the coil. The primary factors of the electrical power generated from the energy harvester include a magnet, a spring, a coil, an excited frequency, an excited amplitude, and a design space. In order to obtain maximal electrical power during the excitation period, it is necessary to set the system’s natural frequency equal to the external forcing frequency. There are ten design factors of the energy harvester including the magnet diameter (Dm), the magnet height (Hm), the system damping ratio (ζsys), the spring diameter (Ds), the diameter of the spring wire (ds), the spring length (ℓs), the pitch of the spring (ps), the spring’s number of revolutions (Ns), the coil diameter (Dc), the diameter of the coil wire (dc), and the coil’s number of revolutions (Nc). Because of the mutual effects of the above factors, searching for the appropriate design parameters within a constrained space is complicated. Concerning their geometric allocation, the above ten design parameters are reduced to four (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc). In order to search for optimal electrical power, the objective function of the electrical power is maximized by adjusting the four design parameters (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc) via the simulated annealing method. Consequently, the optimal design parameters of Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc that produce maximum electrical power for an electromagnetic energy harvester are found.
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Abstract

There has been considerable research done on multi-chamber mufflers used in the elimination of industrial venting noise. However, most research has been restricted to lower frequencies using the plane wave theory. This has led to underestimating acoustical performances at higher frequencies. Additionally, because of the space-constrained problem in most plants, the need for optimization of a compact muffler seems obvious. Therefore, a muffler composed of multiple rectangular fin-shaped chambers is proposed. Based on the eigenfunction theory, a four-pole matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of mufflers will be deduced. A numerical case for eliminating pure tones using a three-fin-chamber muffler will also be examined. To delineate the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using the Differential Evolution (DE) method is adopted. Before the DE operation for pure tone elimination can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model must be checked using experimental data. The results reveal that the broadband noise has been efficiently reduced using the three-fin-chamber muffler. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a pure tone using optimally shaped three-fin-chamber mufflers and a differential evolution method within a constrained space has been demonstrated.
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Abstract

Most researchers have explored noise reduction effects based on the transfer matrix method and the boundary element method. However, maximum noise reduction of a plenum within a constrained space, which frequently occurs in engineering problems, has been neglected. Therefore, the optimum design of multi-chamber plenums becomes essential. In this paper, two kinds of multi-chamber plenums (Case I: a two-chamber plenum that is partitioned with a centre-opening baffle; Case II: a three-chamber plenum that is partitioned with two centre-opening baffles) within a fixed space are assessed. In order to speed up the assessment of optimal plenums hybridized with multiple partitioned baffles, a simplified objective function (OBJ) is established by linking the boundary element model (BEM, developed using SYSNOISE) with a polynomial neural network fit with a series of real data – input design data (baffle dimensions) and output data approximated by BEM data in advance. To assess optimal plenums, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied. The results reveal that the maximum value of the transmission loss (TL) can be improved at the desired frequencies. Consequently, the algorithm proposed in this study can provide an efficient way to develop optimal multi-chamber plenums for industry.
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Abstract

Ice thickness is one of the most critical physical indicators in the ice science and engineering. It is therefore very necessary to develop in-situ automatic observation technologies of ice thickness. This paper proposes the principle of three new technologies of in-situ automatic observations of sea ice thickness and provides the findings of laboratory applications. The results show that the in-situ observation accuracy of the monitor apparatus based on the Magnetostrictive Delay Line (MDL) principle can reach ±2 mm, which has solved the “bottleneck” problem of restricting the fine development of a sea ice thermodynamic model, and the resistance accuracy of monitor apparatus with temperature gradient can reach the centimeter level and research the ice and snow substance balance by automatically measuring the glacier surface ice and snow change. The measurement accuracy of the capacitive sensor for ice thickness can also reach ±4 mm and the capacitive sensor is of the potential for automatic monitoring the water level under the ice and the ice formation and development process in water. Such three new technologies can meet different needs of fixed-point ice thickness observation and realize the simultaneous measurement in order to accurately judge the ice thickness.
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Abstract

The sompoton is one of famous traditional musical instruments in Sabah. This instrument consists of several parts with the vibrator being the most important one. In this paper, the vibrator is modeled as a clamped bar with a uniformly distributed mass. By means of this model, the fundamental frequency is analyzed with the use of an equivalent single degree of freedom system (SDOF) and exact analysis. The vibrator is made of aluminum in different sizes and is excited using a constant air jet to obtain its fundamental resonance frequency. The fundamental frequency obtained from the experimental measurement is compared with the theoretical values calculated based on the equivalent SDOF and exact analysis theories. It is found that the exact analysis gives a closer value to the experimental results as compared to the SDOF system. Although both the experimental and theoretical results exhibit the same trend, they are different in magnitude. To overcome the differences in both theories, a correction factor is added to account for the production errors.
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Abstract

Thermal/cold spray deposition were used for additive manufacture of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel layers. Mechanically alloyed F/M ODS steel powders (Fe(bal.)-10Cr-1Mo-0.25Ti-0.35Y2O3 in wt.%) were sprayed by a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and cold spray methods. HVOF, as a thermal method, was used for manufacturing a 1 mm-thick ODS steel layer with a ~95% density. The source to objective distance (SOD) and feeding rate were controlled to achieve sound manufacturing. Y2Ti2O7 nano-particles were preserved in the HVOF sprayed layer; however, unexpected Cr2O3 phases were frequently observed at the boundary area of the powders. A cold spray was used for manufacturing the Cr2O3-free layer and showed great feasibility. The density and yield of the cold spray were roughly 80% and 45%, respectively. The softening of ODS powders before the cold spray was conducted using a tube furnace of up to 1200°C. Microstructural characteristics of the cold sprayed layer were investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), the uniformity of deformation amount inside powders was observed.
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