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Abstract

The Influence of Spatial Disorder on Landscape Ecological Systems. Preparation of this report included the following steps: (1) Identification of the main directions of changes taking place in the landscape ecological systems (LES) of Poland in the last few decades; (2) Development of general models of LES response to these changes, with particular emphasis on the ecological effects of spatial disorder; (3) Indication of the main structural elements of the national LES, particularly those at the risk of chaotic or collisional land development; (4) Presentation of ecological and social consequences of changes taking place in LES as well as indication of possible directions of repair, together with an assessment of the scale of costs. Many changes occurring in the development of the country have a negative impact on the spatial order, resources and conditions of the functioning of ecological systems and the aesthetic values of the landscape. Generally these changes cause: (a) decrease in the natural potential of some supply ecosystem services; (b) decline in the natural potential of regulating ecosystem services; (c) decrease in the natural potential of habitat services; (d) decrease in the potential of some cultural services; (e) a decrease in the investment attractiveness of the landscape. Achieving high parameters of the living space should in particular be focused on the protection and harmonious shaping of: (I) a rich natural system, ensuring ecological balance and good rest conditions on the national and regional scale; (II) spatial order, ensuring efficient functioning of the economic system, protection of cultural heritage and high environmental quality standards; (III) high values of landscape physiognomy, including regional identity. The most urgent tasks necessary to improve spatial order in Poland, in particular the condition of landscape ecological systems and the advantages of landscape physiognomy, should be considered: (A) development and successive implementation of the National Landscape Policy, aimed at repairing and protecting landscape quality, including harmonious planning and effective management of its resources and assets; (B) introducing into the legal system provisions allowing for effective protection of spatial order as well as ecological and aesthetic values of the landscape; including the protection of particularly attractive open areas against changes in the character of its natural topography and natural land cover, as well as the repair and
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Abstract

Aesthetic Costs of Spatial Chaos. The most characteristic process of settlement’s development in Poland after 1989, is chaotic dispersion of the buildings, usually around cities, but also along the routes, tourist sites and agricultural areas. The result of this pressure is the fragmentation and the increasing isolation of the landscape ecological systems. These processes have also consequences in the degradation of aesthetic values of the landscape. This report shows the consequences of these processes and condemns the most important tasks that should be taken to repair the quality of the landscape. It is estimated that over 60% of the Polish population lives in the conflict countryside, undergoing pressure of spatial disorder, with reduced or degraded of compositional and aesthetic values. The disintegration of the landscape style and the place identity has also appeared in this areas. In the cities grows the visual aggression of advertising billboards. These phenomena are increasingly negatively assessed by the society. Improvement of spatial order and landscape aesthetics requires fundamental changes in the system of spatial planning, transfer of modern knowledge about the landscape systems to local governments and spatial planning staff, as well as a long-term, consistent work of the society.It is necessary to establish a new way of thinking and learning about the landscape systems. The development and dissemination of methods and techniques of GIS, opens up a new possibilities for diagnosing the physiognomy of the landscape. A methods of assessing the physiognomic structure of landscape as well as methods of design the composition of landscape interiors and scenic panoramas are developed. Since 2015, the landscape audit procedure is implemented. The National Landscape Policy, as well as a common landscape education should be developed, conducted in parallel to the already well-developed environmental policy and education.
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