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## The wave transformer – analysis and application of time digital filters and the integral-derivative operators of ½ order

### Abstract

In this paper the way of modeling phenomena occurring during the voltage and current waves passing through a point connection of two lines, with different wave impedance operators, is presented. This connection point is called „the wave transformer”. The analyzes and the resulting formulas concern not the frequency domain, but the time domain. The appropriate transition matrices of waves through the wave transformer are defined. This matrices are the convolution integral-derivative operators of fractional order (the digital filters). For a lossless line the wave transition matrices through the wave transformer become number type instead of operator type. All matrix multiplications occurring in the formulas should be understood in convolution way.
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## Energy-optimal current distribution in an electrical network – controlling by the differential or the integral systems

### Abstract

In the complex RLC network, apart from the currents flows arising from the normal laws of Kirchhoff, other distributions of current, resulting from certain optimization criteria, may also be received. This paper is the development of research on distribution that meets the condition of the minimum energy losses within the network called energy-optimal distribution. Optimal distribution is not reachable itself, but in order to trigger it off, it is necessary to introduce the control system in current-dependent voltage sources vector, entered into a mesh set of a complex RLC network. For energy-optimal controlling, to obtain the control operator, the inversion of R(s) operator is required. It is the matrix operator and the dispersive operator (it depends on frequency). Inversion of such operators is inconvenient because it is algorithmically complicated. To avoid this the operator R(s) is replaced by the R’ operator which is a matrix, but non-dispersive one (it does not depend on s). This type of control is called the suboptimal control. Therefore, it is important to make appropriate selection of the R’ operator and hence the suboptimal control. This article shows how to implement such control through the use of matrix operators of multiple differentiation or integration. The key aspect is the distribution of a single rational function H(s) in a series of ‘s’ or ‘s⁻¹’. The paper presents a new way of developing a given, stable rational transmittance with real coefficients in power series of ‘s/s⁻¹՚. The formulas to determine values of series coefficients (with ‘s/s⁻¹’) have been shown and the conditions for convergence of differential/integral operators given as series of ‘s/s⁻¹’ have been defined.
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