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Abstract

Petiole bending in detached leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum was intensively investigated in relation to polar auxin transport in petioles. When detached leaves were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. On the other hand, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) exogenously applied to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face down. To clarify the mechanisms of petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum when they were placed leaf blade face down, the effects of application of IAA, ethephon which is an ethylene releasing compound, inhibitors of polar auxin transport such as 2,3,5-tiiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were thoroughly investigated. Ethephon was not effective to enhance petiole bending, suggesting that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in petiole bending in detachd leaves of B. calycinum. This suggestion was strongly supported by the fact that ethephon exogenously applied to petioles in intact plant of B. calycinum had no effect on inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty either (Ueda et al., 2018). Potent inhibitors of polar auxin transport, TIBA and HFCA, and JA-Me were extremely effective to inhibit petiole bending but NPA was not. Almost no petiole bending was observed in excised petiole segments without the leaf blade. Applicaton of IAA to the cut surface of petioles in the leaf blade side strongly promoted petiole bending. Polar auxin transport in excised petioles of B. calycinum was intensively investigated using radiolabeled IAA ([1-14C] IAA). Clear polar auxin transport was observed in excised petiole segments, indicating that auxin allows movement in one direction: from the leaf blade side to the stem side in petioles. When detached leaves were placed only leaf blade face down, transported 14C-IAA was reduced in the lower side of the excised petioles. These results strongly suggest that transport and/or lateral movement of endogenous auxin biosynthesized or produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum. Mechanisms of petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum are also discussed in relation to polar auxin transport and lateral movement of auxin.
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Abstract

During the research interaction of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) in epinasty and/or hyponasty, as well as petiole growth of Bryophyllum calycinum were investigated. Exogenously applied IAA as a lanolin paste was extremely effective to induce epinasty and/or hyponasty accompanied with petiole elongation in intact B. calycinum. Application of IAA around or to the upper side of the petiole was much more effective than that to the lower side, suggesting that petiole epidermal cells on the adaxial side of B. calycinum are more sensitive and/or susceptive to IAA than those on the abaxial one. This is supported by the fact that not only the second curvature but also the first one in B. calycinum was enhanced by application of IAA to the upper side of the petiole. The degree of epinasty and/or hyponasty induced by IAA is strongly related to the increase of petiole growth. On the other hand, JA-Me significantly inhibited IAA-inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth in intact B. calycinum. When detached leaves with petioles were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. However, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Exogenously applied IAA to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending in placing detached leaves of B. calycinum face down but ethephon was not, suggesting that transport and/or movement of endogenous auxin produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum and that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole bending in B. calycinum. The mechanisms of IAA-enhancing and JA-Me-inhibiting epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth are intensively discussed.
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Abstract

Abstract The influence of methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin accumulation in roots of Kalanchoe blossfediana plants was studied. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me), at a concentration of 5.0 to 40.0 mg.l−1, substantially increased anthocyanin accumulation in roots of intact plants, when it was applied as a solution under natural light conditions. The production of anthocyanin depended on the concentration of methyl jasmonate and the age of the plant. The stimulatory effect was higher in older plants of K. blossfeldiana than in younger ones. When leaves were removed methyl jasmonate slightly stimulated anthocyanin accumulation compared with intact plants. The obtained results indicate that leaves are necessary for the anthocyanin accumulation in the roots. In isolated roots methyl jasmonate did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanins in light conditions. Seven anthocyanins were documented in the roots of control plants and 8 anthocyanins in the roots of JA-Me treated ones. JA-Me increased the level of anthocyanins in roots of old K. blossfeldiana plants 6.8, 6.0 and 3.6-folds, after 4, 8 and 14-days of treatment, respectively.
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Abstract

Abstract In tomato fruits, chlorophyll, lycopene and ß-carotene are mostly responsible for the color. During ripening of tomato fruits, the color of the pericarp changes from green to red as chlorophyll is degraded and carotenoids accumulate. These changes are associated with an increase in respiration and ethylene production. Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants can be disturbed by herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-trifluoromethyl(phenyl)]- 4(1H)-pyridinone), which inhibits the activity of phytoene desaturase, an enzyme responsible for conversion of phytoene to phytofluene. Fluridone is also used as an inhibitor of biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones, and it reduces chlorophyll production in plants. In our research we studied the effect of fluridone on some physiological parameters, such as color, firmness, ethylene production, lycopene and chlorophyll content during ripening of the tomato fruit. Tomato plants cv. Altadena (Syngenta) were cultivated in a greenhouse in controlled temperature and both immature and mature fruits were used for the experiments, performed between August and November 2016. Fluridone at concentrations of 0.1% and 1.0% in lanolin paste was applied as a 2-3 mm stripe from the top to the base of tomato fruits, and as a control a stripe of lanolin was applied in the same way on the opposite side of the fruits. Fluridone at a concentration of 1.0% greatly inhibited lycopene accumulation in the pericarp of tomato fruits from the treated side. The measurements of fruit firmness have shown no significant differences between firmness of the part of the tomato fruits treated with fluridone, and the non-treated ones. Tomato fruits treated with fluridone produced amounts of ethylene similar to those found in control tissues on the opposite side of the same fruit. Fluridone delayed chlorophyll degradation in tomato fruits. The metabolic significance of these findings is discussed with the role of carotenogenesis inhibition in tomato fruit ripening.
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