Recent outbreaks of adenovirus (FAdV) infections in poultry flocks have been determined in many countries in Europe, Asia and Australia connected with economic consequences, and loses in poultry production. To better understand the evolution and transmission of FAdV viruses, de- tailed codon usage analysis was performed for 137 recently obtained FAdV strains. A high effec- tive number of codons, and an indication the presence of low codon usage were determined. The presence of mutations, and their influence on codon usage was confirmed by a correlation be- tween nucleotide compositions at the 3rd codon positions, HVRs1-4, and ENCs. This presence indicate some influence of natural selection, and antigenic properties of examined FAdV strains.
The study of the different engineering materials according to their mechanical and dynamic characteristics has become an area of research interest in recent years. Several studies have verified that the mechanical properties of the material are directly affected by the distribution and size of the particles that compose it. Such is the case of asphalt mixtures. For this reason, different digital tools have been developed in order to be able to detect the structural components of the elements in a precise, clear and efficient manner. In this work, a segmentation model is developed for different types of dense-graded asphalt mixtures with grain sizes from 9.5 mm to 0.0075 mm, using sieve size reconstruction of the laboratory production curve. The laboratory curve is used to validate the particles detection model that uses morphological operations for elements separation. All this with the objective of developing a versatile tool for the analysis and study of pavement structures in a non-destructive test. The results show that the model presented in this work is able to segment elements with an area greater than 0.0324 mm2 and reproduce the sieve size curves of the mixtures with a high percentage of precision.
Fe-40wt% TiB2 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical activation and spark-plasma sintering of a powder mixture of iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH2). The powder mixture of (FeB, TiH2) was prepared by high-energy ball milling in a planetary ball mill at 700 rpm for 3 h followed by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) at various conditions. Analysis of the change in relative sintered density and densification rate during sintering showed that a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction occurs to form TiB2 from FeB and Ti. A sintered body with relative density higher than 98% was obtained after sintering at 1150°C for 5 and 15 min. The microstructural observation of sintered compacts with the use of FE-SEM and TEM revealed that ultrafine particulates with approximately 5 nm were evenly distributed in an Fe-matrix. A hardness value of 83 HRC was obtained, which is equivalent to that of conventional WC-20 Co systems.
The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient – 900 OC. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by the poured casting.
Investment casting technology that utilizes lost-wax casting is one of the most-important achievements of ancient society. In Lower Silesia, Poland (Grzybiany, Legnica county), a 7-6 BC casting workshop was discovered with numerous artifacts, confirming the existence of the manufacturing process of metal ornaments using ceramic molds. The paper presents the research of molds and casts from the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. Microscopic analyses of the casting molds were performed, along with radiographic and chemical composition tests of the artifacts (the latter employing the use of the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method). The clustering method was used for alloy classification. The microstructure was analyzed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Conclusions from the research were utilized in further experiments
The casting workshop was discovered with numerous artifacts, confirming the existence of the manufacturing process of metal ornaments using ceramic molds and investment casting technology in Lower Silesia (Poland) in 7-6 BC. The research has yielded significant technological information about the bronze casting field, especially the alloys that were used and the artifacts that were made from them. Based on the analyses, the model alloys were experimentally reconstructed. Taking advantage of the computer-modeling method, a geometric visualization of the bronze bracelets was performed; subsequently, we simulated pouring liquid metal in the ceramic molds and observed the alloy solidification. These steps made it possible to better understand the casting processes from the perspective of the mold technology as well as the melting and casting of alloys.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process that joins similar or dissimilar materials into application-oriented objects in a wide range of sizes and shapes. This article presents an overview of two additive manufacturing techniques; namely Laser metal deposition (LMD) and Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). In LMD, metallic powders are contained in one or more chambers, which are then channelled through deposition nozzles. A laser heats the particles to produce metallic beads, which are deposited in layers with the aid of an in-built motion system. In WAAM, a high voltage electric arc functions as the heat source, which helps with ensuring deposition of materials, while materials in wire form are used for the feedstock. This article highlights some of the strengths and challenges that are offered by both processes. As part of the authors’ original research work, Ti-6Al-4V, Stainless steel 316L and Al-12Si were prepared using LMD, while the WAAM technique was used to prepare two Al alloys; Al-5356 and CuAl8Ni2. Microstructural analysis will focus on similarity and differences in grains that are formed in layers. This article will also offer an overall comparison on how these samples compare with other materials that have been prepared using LMD and WAAM.