The paper presents a numerical study on the heat transfer and pressure drop, related to flow in pipes with helical micro-fins. For all tested geometries, one applied a constant wall heat flux and fully developed 3D turbulent flow conditions. The influence of the angle of micro fins (referred to the tube axis) on thermal-flow characteristics were tested. The value of this angle was varied – with a step of 10 degrees – from 0 to 90 degrees (representing grooves parallel and perpendicular to the axis, respectively). Before numerical investigation, the pipe with helical angle of 30 degree was tested on an experimental stand. The results obtained from experiment and numerical simulations were compared and presented on the charts. As an effect of the numerical simulations, the friction factor f and Nusselt number characteristics was determined for the range of Re=104/1.6x106. The analysis of the results showed high, irregular influence of the helical angle on thermal characteristics and pressure drops. Additionally, the ratios: f/fplain, Nu/Nuplainand efficiency indexes (Nu/Nuplain)/( f/fplain) as a function of the Reynolds number for every helical angle were shown on the charts.
The concentration or the partial pressure of oxygen in an environment can be determined using different measuring principles. For high temperature measurements of oxygen, ceramic-based sensors are the most practical. They are simple in construction, exploration and maintenance. A typical oxygen potentiometric sensor consists of an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and two electrodes deposited on the two sides of the electrolyte. In this paper different structures of potentiometric oxygen sensors with a solid state reference electrode were fabricated and investigated. The fabricated structures consisted of oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte from yttria stabilized zirconia, a sensing platinum electrode and nickel-nickel oxide reference electrode. The mixture of nickel-nickel oxide was selected as the reference electrode because it provides reliable electrochemical potential in contact with oxygen conducting electrolyte. To avoid oxidation of nickel the reference electrode is sealed from ambient and the mixture of nickel-nickel oxide was formed electrochemically from nickel oxide after sealing. The effectiveness of the sealing quality and the effectiveness of nickel-nickel oxide mixture formation was investigated by impedance spectroscopy.
Electrocatalytic gas sensors belong to the family of electrochemical solid state sensors. Their responses are acquired in the form of I-V plots as a result of application of cyclic voltammetry technique. In order to obtain information about the type of measured gas the multivariate data analysis and pattern classification techniques can be employed. However, there is a lack of information in literature about application of such techniques in case of standalone chemical sensors which are able to recognize more than one volatile compound. In this article we present the results of application of these techniques to the determination from a single electrocatalytic gas sensor of single concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Two types of classifiers were evaluated, i.e. linear Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and nonlinear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The efficiency of using PLS-DA and SVM methods are shown on both the raw voltammetric sensor responses and pre-processed responses using normalization and auto-scaling