In this study, we investigate the mechanical behavior of each skin layer, in terms of the nominal stress-strain curve by uniaxial tensile tests using specimens of porcine skin in two forms: dermis containing epidermis, and all three layers. All tests were performed under cyclic loading at the constant strain rate of 10–3 s–1 at ambient temperature. To measure the precise initial cross-sectional areas of each layer, the thickness of each skin layer was quantified by counting the number of pixels on the photo-image using image-processing software. In the tensile test, force-strain curves of the total skin and dermis with epidermis were obtained. Subsequently, a rule of mixtures was applied to determine the nonlinear mechanical properties of the hypodermis layer. In conclusion, we could define the uniaxial tensile behavior of the hypodermis, and additionally predict the weight effect of the dermis and hypodermis layers in the tensile test.
Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on porcine skin to investigate the tensile stress-strain constitutive characteristic at quasistatic deformations using uniaxial tensile tests. Experimental results were then used to determine the parameters of the various constitutive model types for rubber, including the Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, Ogden, and others. The Prony series viscoelastic model was also calibrated based on the stress relaxation test. To investigate the calibrated constitutive equations (visco-hyperelastic), the falling impact test was conducted. From the viewpoint of the maximum impact load, the error was approximately 15.87%. Overall, the Ogden model predicted the experimental measurements most reasonably. The calibrated constitutive model is expected to be of practical use in describing the mechanical properties of porcine skin.
In this study, ODS ferritic stainless steels were fabricated using a commercial alloy powder, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were studied to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications. Mechanical alloying and uniaxial hot pressing processes were employed to produce the ODS ferritic stainless steels. It was revealed that oxide particles in the ODS stainless steels were composed of Y-Si-O, Y-Ti-Si-O, and Y-Hf-Si-O complex oxides were observed depending on minor alloying elements, Ti and Hf. The ODS ferritic stainless steel with a Hf addition presented ultra-fine grains with uniform distributions of fine complex oxide particles which located in grains and on the grain boundaries. These favorable microstructures led to superior tensile properties than commercial stainless steel and ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition at elevated temperature.
Thermal/cold spray deposition were used for additive manufacture of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel layers. Mechanically alloyed F/M ODS steel powders (Fe(bal.)-10Cr-1Mo-0.25Ti-0.35Y2O3 in wt.%) were sprayed by a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and cold spray methods. HVOF, as a thermal method, was used for manufacturing a 1 mm-thick ODS steel layer with a ~95% density. The source to objective distance (SOD) and feeding rate were controlled to achieve sound manufacturing. Y2Ti2O7 nano-particles were preserved in the HVOF sprayed layer; however, unexpected Cr2O3 phases were frequently observed at the boundary area of the powders. A cold spray was used for manufacturing the Cr2O3-free layer and showed great feasibility. The density and yield of the cold spray were roughly 80% and 45%, respectively. The softening of ODS powders before the cold spray was conducted using a tube furnace of up to 1200°C. Microstructural characteristics of the cold sprayed layer were investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), the uniformity of deformation amount inside powders was observed.
Electron beam melting(EBM) is a useful technique to obtain high-purity metal ingots. It is also used for melting refractory metals such as tantalum, which require melting techniques employing a high-energy heat source. Drawing is a method which is used to convert the ingot into a wire shape. The required thickness of the wire is achieved by drawing the ingot from a drawing die with a hole of similar size. This process is used to achieve high purity tantalum springs, which are an essential component of lithography lamp in semiconductor manufacturing process. Moreover, high-purity tantalum is used in other applications such as sputtering targets for semiconductors. Studies related to recycling of tantalum from these components have not been carried out until now. The recycling of tantalum is vital for environmental and economic reasons. In order to obtain high-purity tantalum ingot, in this study impurities contained in the scrap were removed by electron beam melting after pre-treatment using aqua regia. The purity of the ingot was then analyzed to be more than 4N5 (99.995%). Subsequently, drawing was performed using the rod melted by electron beam melting. Owing to continuous drawing, the diameter of the tantalum wire decreased to 0.5 mm from 9 mm. The hardness and oxygen concentration of the tantalum ingot were 149 Hv and less than 300 ppm, respectively, whereas the hardness of the tantalum wire was 232.12 Hv. In conclusion, 4N5 grade tantalum wire was successfully fabricated from tantalum scrap by EBM and drawing techniques. Furthermore, procedure to successfully recycle Tantalum from scraps was established.