GPR method is perfectly suited for recognizing of sedimentary facies diversity in shallowly occurring sediments if there is a contrast of electrical properties between and/or within each layer. The article deals with the issue of the correlation between GPR surveys results and sedimentological analyses. As a result of this correlation a conceptual model of depositional systems of studied areas was developed. Studies were performed in two areas located in central Poland, where glacial deposits formed in the Middle Polish (Saalian) Glaciation are present. The study was based on 49 sediment samples and 21 GPR profiles. Analyses of lithofacies as well as granulometric and mineralogical composition of deposits of collected samples were carried out, showing the diversity of glacial deposits in both study sites. During GPR measurements shielded antenna with a frequency of 500 MHz was used which allowed high-resolution mapping of the internal structure of deposits and to identify four characteristic radar facies. Correlation of GPR profiles with point, one-dimensional sedimentological studies allowed the unambiguous interpretation of the GPR image and draw conclusions about the formation environment of individual units. Geophysical and sedimentological data obtained during study provide a new and detailed insight into selected glacial deposits in central Poland.
The method of a phase shift angle measurement using conditional averaging of delayed signal absolute value (CAAV) is presented in this paper. The input sinusoidal signal x(t) is without noise. White noise with normal distribution and band limited to low frequencies has been applied as disturbance of delayed sinusoidal signal z(t). Noise n(t) - N(0, σn) is added to the delayed signal - the noised and delayed signal z(t) is obtained. The phase angle shift is proportional to time location of CAAV's minimum (minimum of the characteristic of conditional averaging of delayed signal's absolute value). The phase angle shift can be determined on the basis of conditional averaging value of elaborated algorithm. The characteristics of conditional average of delayed signal's absolute value in the surrounding of the minimum of this function (the results of practical investigations and theoretical calculation) are presented. The experimental variance of characteristic CAAV in surroundings of the minimum (obtained from practical investigations and calculation) is illustrated in the paper. The algorithms of conditional averaging have been elaborated and practically realized in the LabVIEW environment.
In the study the comparative analysis of test results of drainage of municipal wastewater sludge was conducted with the use of flocculant Praestol 855BS and the mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS 50% + orange essential oil 50%, as the reagents supporting this process. It was also attempted to reduce unpleasant smells exuding from the drained sludge. The process of drainage of municipal wastewater sludge was conducted in the laboratory setting centrifuge of MPW-350 type. The variable independent parameters were centrifugation time, centrifugation speed, dosage of flocculant Praestol 855BS as well as dosage of mixture in the proportion of flocculant Praestol 855BS (50%) + orange essential oil (50%). The following parameters were subject to assessment: water content in the sludge, dry mass content in the reflux as well as time of maintenance of the oil’s smell in the sludge. The conducted tests demonstrated that the orange essential oil has an impact on drop in resultant quality parameters of the drainage process of municipal wastewater sludge. Batching of the orange essential oil has an impact on considerable reduction of odours exuding from drained wastewater sludge, and thus on improvement of work conditions connected with operation of centrifugal separators. Bearing in mind both the efficient drainage process of wastewater sludge as well as simultaneous reduction of unpleasant smells exuding from the sludge during this process it is assumed and recommended to simultaneously apply both reagents, that is flocculant Praestol 855BS (50%) and orange essential oil, also in the volume of 50%.
The correlation of data contained in a series of signal sample values makes the estimation of the statistical characteristics describing such a random sample difficult. The positive correlation of data increases the arithmetic mean variance in relation to the series of uncorrelated results. If the normalized autocorrelation function of the positively correlated observations and their variance are known, then the effect of the correlation can be taken into consideration in the estimation process computationally. A significant hindrance to the assessment of the estimation process appears when the autocorrelation function is unknown. This study describes an application of the conditional averaging of the positively correlated data with the Gaussian distribution for the assessment of the correlation of an observation series, and the determination of the standard uncertainty of the arithmetic mean. The method presented here can be particularly useful for high values of correlation (when the value of the normalized autocorrelation function is higher than 0.5), and for the number of data higher than 50. In the paper the results of theoretical research are presented, as well as those of the selected experiments of the processing and analysis of physical signals.
This paper presents the results of the theoretical and practical analysis of selected features of the function of conditional average value of the absolute value of delayed signal (CAAV). The results obtained with the CAAV method have been compared with the results obtained by method of cross correlation (CCF), which is often used at the measurements of random signal time delay. The paper is divided into five sections. The first is devoted to a short introduction to the subject of the paper. The model of measured stochastic signals is described in Section 2. The fundamentals of time delay estimation using CCF and CAAV are presented in Section 3. The standard deviations of both functions in their extreme points are evaluated and compared. The results of experimental investigations are discussed in Section 4. Computer simulations were used to evaluate the performance of the CAAV and CCF methods. The signal and the noise were Gaussian random variables, produced by a pseudorandom noise generator. The experimental standard deviations of both functions for the chosen signal to noise ratio (SNR) were obtained and compared. All simulation results were averaged for 1000 independent runs. It should be noted that the experimental results were close to the theoretical values. The conclusions and final remarks were included in Section 5. The authors conclude that the CAAV method described in this paper has less standard deviation in the extreme point than CCF and can be applied to time delay measurement of random signals.
Autocorrelation of signals and measurement data makes it difficult to estimate their statistical characteristics. However, the scope of usefulness of autocorrelation functions for statistical description of signal relation is narrowed down to linear processing models. The use of the conditional expected value opens new possibilities in the description of interdependence of stochastic signals for linear and non-linear models. It is described with relatively simple mathematical models with corresponding simple algorithms of their practical implementation. The paper presents a practical model of exponential autocorrelation of measurement data and a theoretical analysis of its impact on the process of conditional averaging of data. Optimization conditions of the process were determined to decrease the variance of a characteristic of the conditional expected value. The obtained theoretical relations were compared with some examples of the experimental results.
Abstract An efficient micropropagation protocol for production of genetically uniform clones of Eryngium campestre L. was developed. To determine the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on shoot and root development and bioactive compounds production, three variants of media differing in the content of macro- and micronutrients, as well as plant growth regulators of various types and concentrations were tested. The highest regeneration (100%), with over 13 shoots per explant, was induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.0 mg l−1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.1 mg l−1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The in vitro derived shoots multiplied through axillary bud formation were rooted and transferred to an experimental plot with 78% frequency of survival. Flow cytometry showed no variation in nuclear DNA between the seedlings and micropropagated plants. Preliminary thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that phenolic acids, saponins, flavonoids and acetylenes were present in plant biomass. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis revealed that shoots and roots from in vitro derived plants and root cultures maintained the ability to produce rosmarinic acid (RA), rosmarinic acid hexoside (RA-HEX) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). The highest phenolic acid content was detected in roots of in vitro regenerated plants. The extract from those roots expressed the highest inhibitory effect against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, as well as dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum.