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Abstract

Research in termoacoustics began with the observation of the heat transfer between gas and solids. Using this interaction the intense sound wave could be applied to create engines and heat pumps. The most important part of thermoacoustic devices is a regenerator, where press of conversion of sound energy into thermal or vice versa takes place. In a heat pump the acoustic wave produces the temperature difference at the two ends of the regenerator. The aim of the paper is to find the influence of the material used for the construction of a regenerator on the properties of a thermoacoustic heat pump. Modern technologies allow us to create new materials with physical properties necessary to increase the temperature gradient on the heat exchangers. The aim of this paper is to create a regenerator which strongly improves the efficiency of the heat pump.
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Abstract

The paper presents results of hearing loss measurements provided for 81 young people (from 16 to 25 years old). The main aim of the work was to find the influence of headphones of the types used (closed, semi-open, open and in-ear) on the hearing losses. The first part of the research was to answer questions about the influence of: time of listening, loudness of music, other noise exposures as well as the type of the headphones used. It turned out that all factors mentioned above influence thresholds of hearing but the found dependencies are not explicit. The greatest hearing losses were observed for people who work as sound reinforcement engineers and, moreover, no influence of the headphone types was found for them. It turned out that the use of in-ear headphones causes the greatest hearing losses for some subjects (thresholds shifted up to about 20 dB HL at 4 kHz). The daily time of a listening also affected the hearing thresholds. It was found that for users of in-ear and close headphones, an average time of musical exposure of three hours causes the hearing loss of 10-15 dB HL at higher frequencies. The use of open as well as semi-open headphones has no influence on the hearing damage. Thus it would be stated that these kinds are safety in use. Almost 15% of the investigated young people have their thresholds shifted up at higher frequencies, particularly at 4 kHz, which means that they have the first symptoms of a permanent hearing damage.
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