The aim of the study was to determine the impact of selected factors on the reduction of organic pollutants, expressed in BOD5 and CODCr, in wastewater treated in a laboratory scale model of moving bed bioﬁlm reactor (MBBR). The factors included in the experiment: the degree of ﬁlling the ﬂuidized bed with biomass carriers, hydraulic load, and aeration intensity. The tested model of the bioreactor consisted of ﬁve independent chambers with diameter D = 0.14 m and height H = 2.0 m, which were ﬁlled with biomass carriers at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 70% of their active volume. During the test period, hydraulic loads at the level of Qh1 = 0.073 m3·m-2·h-1 and Qh2 = 0.036 m3·m-2·h-1 were applied, which ensured one-day and two-day sewage retention, respectively.The said reactors were subjected to constant aeration at P1 = 3.0 dm3·min-1 and P2 = 5.0 dm3·min-1. The highest efﬁciency of the reduction of the analysed indicators was demonstrated by reactors ﬁlled with carriers in the degree of 40–60%. Based on the statistical analyses (the analyses of the ANOVA variations and the Kruskal-Wallis test) carried out, it was found that the studied factors signiﬁcantly modiﬁed the mutual interaction in the process of reducing BOD5 in treated wastewater of the reactors tested. The signiﬁcance of the impact of the discussed factors on the values of the studied indicators in treated wastewater depends on mutual interactions between the investigated factors.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the temperature of wastewater in a biological reactor with activated sludge and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio in the inﬂuent to the treatment plant on nitriﬁcation efﬁciency and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater. Tests were carried out in a household wastewater treatment plant which collects and treats sewage from a school building and a teacher’s house. During the 3-year study, large ﬂuctuations in the sewage temperature in bioreactor were noted which was closely related to the ambient temperature. There were also large ﬂuctuations in the concentration of organic matter and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in inﬂowing sewage. The inﬂuence of wastewater temperature in the bioreactor and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio on the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater was determined using Pearson’s linear correlation. A statistical analysis showed that a 1°C decrease in the temperature of wastewater in the bioreactor increased the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater by 2.64 mgN-NH4·L-1. Moreover, it was found that nitriﬁcation depended on the ratio of BOD5 to the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in wastewater ﬂowing into the bioreactor. An increase in the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio by 1 value led to a 5.41 mgN-NH4·L-1 decrease in the concentration of ammonium nitrogen.
Saprotrophic filamentous microfungi were isolated by means of the soil dilution method from soil samples collected from four locations in the Bellsund region of Spitsbergen (77°33’N, 14°31’E) representing the following forms of surface micro-relief: an old stormbank, a sorted circle, a frost fissure between tundra polygons, and the central part of a tundra polygon. The fungal isolates were identified and screened for their ability to grow at low temperatures. The oligotrophy of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic strains was then determined as the ability of growth on silica gel without a C source added. Differences in some physico-chemical properties were found between the soils sampled from the four sites. A total of 89 taxa from 17 genera were isolated. Most of the isolates were species of Mortierella, Penicillium, Chrysosporium and Phialophora, and half of them were psychrophiles. Fungal communities isolated from a frost fissure between tundra polygons (site 3) and from the central part of a tundra polygon (site 4) were dominated by psychrophiles but those isolated from an old stormbank (site 1) and a sorted circle (site 2) were predominantly psychrotrophic. Oligopsychrophilic taxa accounted for 27% and oligopsychrotrophic for 20% of all the isolated taxa but only from 0.7% to 11.7% and from 1.2% to 6.3% of the total number of cfu (colony forming unit) isolated from an individual site, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the abundance of fungi in Arctic soil is mostly affected by the content of organic matter in the A horizon and the plant cover, but other factors, such as the stage of soil development and the micro-relief of the surface, are more important for species richness of fungal communities.
The sedimentary environment, sediment characteristics and age−depth models of sediment sequences from Arctic lakes Revvatnet and Svartvatnet, located near the Polish Polar Station in Hornsund, southern Svalbard (77 ° N), were studied with a view to establishing a basis for paleolimnological climate and environmental reconstructions. The results indicate that catchment−to−lake hydroclimatic processes probably affect the transportation, distribution and accumulation of sediments in different parts of lakes Revvatnet and Svartvatnet. Locations with continuous and essentially stable sedimentary environments were found in both lakes between water depths of 9 and 26 m. We used several different dating techniques, including 137 Cs, 210 Pb, AMS 14 C, and paleomagnetic dating, to provide accurate and secured sediment chronologies. A recovered sequence from the northern basin of Revvatnet spans more than one thousand years long with laminated stratigraphy in the upper part of the sediment. Based on AMS 14 C dates, it is possible to suppose that Revvatnet basin was not occupied by a valley glacier during the Little Ice Age. The dates were supported by 137 Cs chronologies, but not confirmed with other independent dating methods that extent beyond the last 50 years. A sedimentary sequence from the northern basin of Svartvatnet provides a potential archive for the study of climate and environmental change for the last ca. 5000 years. Based on the stratigraphy and a Bayesian age−depth model of AMS 14 C and paleosecular variation (PSV) dates, the recovered sediment sections represent a continuous and stable sedimentation for the latter half of the Holocene.