The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Sn addition on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-1Zn-1Zr-xSn (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 wt.%) alloys prepared by powder-in-tube rolling (PTR) method. The PTR-treated Mg alloys reached 98.3% of theoretical density. The hardness of the alloy increased with Sn addition. Two main intermetallic phases, Mg2Sn and Zn2Zr3, were formed in the alloys. The Mg2Sn intermetallic particles were observed along the grain boundaries, while the Zn2Zr3 particles were distributed in the Mg matrix. The addition of 1 wt. % Sn caused the corrosion potential to shift toward a more positive value, and the resulting alloy exhibited low corrosion current density.
We investigated the effect of pre-sintering process on the penetration behavior of Dy in a NdFeB sintered magnet which was grain boundary diffusion treated with Cu/Al mixed Dy source. The pre-sintering of a magnet was performed at 900oC in vacuum and then the pre-sintered body was dipped in the solutions of DyH2, DyH2 + Cu, and DyH2 + Al, respectively. The dipped pre-sintered body were then fully sintered 4 hours at 1060oC followed by a subsequent annealing. The pre-sintering apparently improved the diffusivity of Dy atoms. The penetration of Dy into the magnet extended almost to 2,000 μm from the surface, about four times deeper than that of the normally sintered and diffusion treated one, when the DyH2 + Al solution was used as a Dy source. However, the resulting increase of coercivity was about 4 kOe, somewhat lower than that of the normally treated one, mostly due to excessive oxide formation that hindered to make a continuous Nd-rich grain boundary phase and a core-shell type structure.
Nano-sized yttria (Y2O3) powders were synthesized by a polymer solution route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as an organic carrier. The PVA polymer affected the dispersion of yttrium ions in precursor sol. In this study, three kinds of PVA polymer (different molecular weight) were applied for synthesis of yttria powder. The PVA type as well as calcination temperature had a strongly influence on the particle morphology. Single crystal nano wire particles were observed at the temperature of polymer burn out range and the size was dependent on the PVA type. The stable, fully crystallized yttria powder was obtained through the calcination at 800°C for 1 h. The yttria powder prepared with the high weight PVA (MW: 153,000) revealed a particle size of 30 nm with a surface area of 18.8 m2/g.
A nanocrystalline Ti alloy powder was fabricated using cryomilling. The grain size and lattice strain evolution during cryomilling were quantitatively analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) based on the Scherrer equation, Williamson-Hall (W-H) plotting method, and size-strain (S-S) method assuming uniform deformation. Other physical parameters including stress and strain have been calculated. The average crystallite size and the lattice strain evaluated from XRD analysis are in good agreement with the result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Fe-Cr-B alloy is a material with precipitation of boride inside Fe matrix, and it features outstanding hardness and wear resistance properties. However, Fe-Cr-B alloy is a difficult material to process, making it difficult to use as a bulk type structure material which requires delicate shapes. This study attempted to manufacture Fe-Cr-B alloy using a 3D printing process, laser metal deposition. This study also investigated the microstructure, hardness and compression properties of the manufactured alloy. Phase analysis results is confirmed that α-Fe phase as matrix and (Cr, Fe)2B phase as reinforcement phase. In the case of (Cr, Fe)2B phase, differences were observed according to the sample location. While long, coarse, unidirectional needle-type boride phases (~11 μm thickness) were observed in the center area of the sample, relatively finer boride phases (~6 μm thickness) in random directions were observed in other areas. At room temperature compression test results confirmed that the sample had a compression strength is approximately 2.1 GPa, proving that the sample is a material with extremely high strength. Observation of the compression fracture surface identified intergranular fractures in areas with needle-type boride, and transgranular fractures in areas with random borides. Based on this results, this study also reviewed the deformation behavior of LMD Fe-Cr-B alloy in relation to its microstructures.
This study attempted to manufacture an Y2O3 ceramic coating layer on a ceramic (AlN) substrate using aerosol deposition (AD) and investigated its macroscopic properties. Pure Y2O3 powder with a polygonal shape and average size of 5.0 μm was used as initial feedstock. Using aerosol deposition with suitable process conditions, an Y2O3 coating layer was successfully fabricated on aluminum nitride (AIN). The thickness of the manufactured coating layer was approximately 10 mm. The coating layer consisted of Y2O3 phase identical to that in the initial powder, and no additional oxides were identified. In regard to the roughness of the Y2O3 coating layer, the average roughness (Ra) measured 1.32 μm, indicating that the surface roughness was relatively even compared to the initial powder size (5 μm). Mechanical properties of the Y2O3 coating layer were measured using nano indentation equipment, and the indentation modulus of the Y2O3 coating layer fabricated by aerosol deposition measured 136.5 GPa. The interface of the coating layer was observed using TEM, and the deposition mechanism of the Y2O3 coating layer manufactured by aerosol deposition was also discussed.
Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites are one of the most promising materials for hypersonic infrared windows and domes due to their excellent optical transmittance and mechanical properties. In this study, influence of the calcination temperature of Y2O3-MgO nanopowders on the microstructure, IR transmittance, and hardness of Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites was investigated. It was found that the calcination temperature is related to the presence of residual intergranular pores and grain size after spark plasma sintering. The nanopowders calcined at 1000°C exhibits the highest infrared transmittance (82.3% at 5.3 μm) and hardness (9.99 GPa). These findings indicated that initial particle size and distribution of the nanopowders are important factors determining the optical and mechanical performances of Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites.