The primary evaluation of the economic losses caused by water pollution in Shanghai in the year 2009 is made by classification approach in order to provide basis for decision of the relative water management policy. The result shows that the portion of water pollution losses in GDP of Shanghai was 2.7%, which was still lower than the average level of whole China despite of the local high population density and the scale of industry, suggesting to some extent the continuous attention in water protection paid by Shanghai government.
In this paper, the thermodynamic investigation on the use of geothermal water (130°C as maximum) for power generation through a basic Rankine has been presented together with obtained main results. Six typical organic working fluids (i.e., R245fa, R141b, R290, R600, R152a, and 134a) were studied with modifying the input pressure and temperature to the turbine. The results show that there are no significant changes taking place in the efficiency for these working fluids with overheating the inlet fluid to the turbine, i.e., efficiency is a weak function of temperature. However, with the increasing of pressure ratio in the turbine, the efficiency rises more sharply. The technical viability is shown of implementing this type of process for recovering low temperature heat resource.