It is really hard to determine the phenomena occurring during aluminum refining process using argon blowing through the liquid metal in industrial conditions. The solution of such problem is physical modelling. This kind of modelling gives possibility to determine the level of dispersion of the refining gas in liquid metal. Especially in steel metallurgy RTD (Residence Time Distribution) analysis and visualization process with some colour tracer, which can give extra information about time of mixing are very popularly used. Because the modelling research (especially visualization) is pictorial, the research was conducted to check if it is possible to estimate quantitatively impeller working effectiveness basing on determination of the RTD curves. The examined object was model of URO-200 batch refining reactor. The RTD curves was registered and discussed for three different impellers and four different variants of processing parameters (rotary impeller speed: 300-500 rpm, and gas flow rate: 15-20 l·min–1). Additionally, the process of mixing of the inert gas with water as a modelling agent was enabled to be observed due to introduction of colour tracer (KMnO4). Results obtained from both measuring methods were graphically presented, compared and shortly discussed.
New technologies and the globalization of the electrical and electronic equipment market cause a continuous increase in the amount of electrical and electronic waste. They constitute one of the waste groups that grows the fastest in quantity. The development of the new generation of electrical and electronic devices is much faster than before. Recently attention has been concentrated on hydrometallurgical methods for the recovery of metals from electronic waste. In this article the role of an oxidizing agent, mainly ozone and hydrogen peroxide was presented in hydrometallurgical processes. Leaching process of printed circuits boards (PCBs) from used cell phones was conducted. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid and ozone as an oxidizing agent for various temperatures, acid concentration, ozone concentration. As a result, the concentrations of copper, zinc, iron and aluminum in the obtained solution were measured. The obtained results were compared to results obtained earlier in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and discussed.
The paper evaluates two approaches of numerical modelling of solidification of continuously cast steel billets by finite element method, namely by the numerical modelling under the Steady-State Thermal Conditions, and by the numerical modelling with the Traveling Boundary Conditions. In the paper, the 3D drawing of the geometry, the preparation of computational mesh, the definition of boundary conditions and also the definition of thermo-physical properties of materials in relation to the expected results are discussed. The effect of thermo-physical properties on the computation of central porosity in billet is also mentioned. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of two described approaches are listed and the direction of the next research in the prediction of temperature field in continuously cast billets is also outlined.
This paper deals with the possibilities of using physical modelling to study the degassing of metal melt during its treatment in the refining ladle. The method of inert gas blowing, so-called refining gas, presents the most common operational technology for the elimination of impurities from molten metal, e.g. for decreasing or removing the hydrogen content from liquid aluminium. This refining process presents the system of gas-liquid and its efficiency depends on the creation of fine bubbles with a high interphase surface, uniform distribution, long period of its effect in the melt, and mostly on the uniform arrangement of bubbles into the whole volume of the refining ladle. Physical modelling represents the basic method of modelling and it makes it possible to obtain information about the course of refining processes. On the basis of obtained results, it is possible to predict the behaviour of the real system during different changes in the process. The experimental part focuses on the evaluation of methodical laboratory experiments aimed at the proposal and testing of the developed methods of degassing during physical modelling. The results obtained on the basis of laboratory experiments realized on the specific physical model were discussed.