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Abstract

This paper presents a new approach to study the palaeoecological and archaeological benefits of the previously investigated Szeged-Öthalom area. The aim was to combine the archaeological results with the palaeoecological ones by a new integral view. Age-depth models of 14C dated charcoal were calculated via Bayesian method to reconstruct the sediment accumulation rates in the investigated loess- palaeosol sequences. Moreover, the age of a Mammoth bone found in 1935 at the nearby Palaeolithic site was correlated with the calculated accumulation rates. Through our new results, the age of the Palaeolithic site could be correlated to the late LGM dust-accumulation-peak period. Even if this period is considered as cold and dry, the palaeoecological settings indicated dense forest cover and cool climate in the investigated area. This means that the palaeoenvironment may have encouraged the diffusion of Gravettian hunters in this area, founding campsites like Öthalom in the southern part of the Carpathian Basin.
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Abstract

This study presents the results of a comprehensive geoarchaeological study implemented at an archeological site covering ca. 5 ha near the city of Csorna on the NW part of the Danube Plain, NW Hungary. The site itself exposed a complex fluvial system of an ice age creek with near bank and overbank areas (levee, point bar, back swamp). Spatial distribution of archeological features allowed for the interpretation of differential use of the fluvial landscape by different cultures. According to our data, the referred fluvial system must have emerged during the Late Glacial. At this time, creeks originating from hills to the SE followed a uniform NW trajectory. From the Holocene, small creeks were beheaded turning into inactive flood channels. It was the time when the gradual infilling of the floodplain started. Alternating layers of floodwater coarses and floodplain fines mark recurring floods at our site. These could have been correlated with cooler, wetter climatic phases of the North Atlantic, Western Europe and high stands in Central European lakes. Highest floods are recorded during the Late Bronze and Iron Ages besides the Neolithic. Pollen data enabled us to make inferences on the vegetation as well.
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Abstract

Abstract We aimed to produce tissue cultures and plant regeneration from endangered Crocus species: C. scepusiensis, C. tommasinianus, C. vittatus (“Verni” series of the genus) and C. banaticus. For initiation of cultures we used a plant growth regulator (PGR) combination used for in vitro culture of saffron and its relatives: 10 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot tips of young seedlings (C. scepusiensis) and corms (for the rest of species) were used as explants. C. scepusiensis explants developed into organogenic calli. On media with decreased NAA and with or without increased BA concentration, calli produced stigma-like structures and/or shoots and whole plants. In the other species, callus initiation medium induced callus formation with abundant somatic embryos. In C. tommasinianus, embryos developed shoots when auxin content of medium was decreased. In C. banaticus, a decrease of auxin with or without an increase in cytokinin content led to shoot or whole plant regeneration, as in C. scepusiensis. In the case of C. vittatus and C. banaticus, initiation and/or maintenance of cultures on indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and increased sucrose concentration stimulated whole plant regeneration and in vitro cormlet development. C. scepusiensis and the rest of cultures (organogenic vs. embryogenic) differed at the biochemical level: C. scepusiensis cultures had higher (yet still low) enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, peroxidase) activities. With respect to catalase isoenzyme patterns, C. banaticus was different from the rest of cultures, demonstrating its distinct taxonomical position. Besides germplasm preservation use of the present cultures, they have a potential biotechnological value.
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