Recent studies in the area of biological air treatment in filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as a biofilter bed of different origin composed of natural zeolite granules, foam cubes and wood chips. When foam and zeolite are mixed with wood chips to remove volatile organic compounds from the air, not only biological but also adsorption air purification methods are accomplished. The use of complex purification technologies helps to improve the efficiency of a filter as well as the bed service life of the filter bed. Investigations revealed that microorganisms prevailing in biological purification, can also reproduce themselves in biofilter beds of inorganic and synthetic origin composed of natural zeolite and foam. By cultivating associations of spontaneous microorganisms in the filter bed the dependencies of the purification efficiency of filter on the origin, concentration and filtration time of injected pollutants were determined. The highest purification efficiency was obtained when air polluted with acetone vapour was supplied to the equipment at 0.1 m/s of superficial gas velocity. When cleaning air from volatile organic compounds (acetone, toluene and butanol), under the initial pollutant concentration of ~100 mg/m3, the filter efficiency reached 95 %.
Background: Equine sarcoids are the most common neoplasms in horses. Bovine papilloma- virus type 1 (BPV-1) is the main viral type identified in equine sarcoids in Europe. Objective: The aim of the present study was to genetically evaluate BPV types based on DNA analyses of the CDS of the L1 gene. The presence of BPV DNA was confirmed by Degenerate Oligonucleotide-Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP PCR) with FAP59/FAP64 consensus primers. Results: The DNA was detected in 21/40 (52.5%) of clinically diagnosed sarcoids. More than half of 14 isolates (66.7%) shared 100% homology with BPV-1 Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 09 asi UK (Acc. No. MF384289) and 99% nucleotide identity with BPV-1 isolate EqSarc1 (Acc. No. JX678969). A comparison with BPV-1 isolate EqSarc1 revealed one silent mutation in C5827T which did not change the aminoacid codon. The remaining 6 isolates (28.6%) shared 100% nucleotide identity with the BPV-1 (Acc. No. X02346) “wild type” isolate, and 1 isolate (4.8%) demonstrated 99% nucleotide identity with BPV-2 (Acc. No. M20219). Conclusions: Variants of BPV-1 isolate EqSarc1 (Acc. No. JX678969) constitute the most prevalent type of BPV-1 in Polish horses.
The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) as a novel treatment of acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARLA) in cattle, focusing on urinary excretion of acids. Twelve cannulated steers were submitted to experimentally induced ARLA by adminis- tering sucrose into the rumen. Twenty hours later, the cattle were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was treated with 7.5% HSS (5 mL/kg) over 15 min, and isotonic saline solution (ISS; 20 mL/kg) for the subsequent 165 minutes. The control group was administered ISS instead of HSS. Rumen and urine samples were collected at different times during the experiment from the baseline to 64 h post-induction. The induction caused a medium-to-moderate ruminal acidosis, and a moderate degree of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Steers treated with HSS increased by 50% its glomerular filtration rate (1.61 mL/min) compared to ISS group (1.06 mL/ min; p<0.03). The overall volume of urine excreted by HSS group was higher than that in ISS group (1.62 L vs 0.7 L; p<0.02). This increase in total volume of urine provided by HSS favored a greater excretion of H+ ions in urine, which was 3.39-fold higher in HSS group (64.3*10-7 vs 18.9*10-7 Mol) as well as lactate (241.7 vs 181.8 mMol) and P urinary excretion (3.8 vs 1.1 mMol) that reduced the urine pH (5.3 vs 5.7). Only the HSS group decreased significantly blood total lactic acid concentration (20.3 %) throughout the treatment. A positive relationship was found between the excretion of urinary phosphorus and urinary pH (r2=0.562). The results showed that this novel treatment with HSS enhanced renal excretion of acids and may be recommended as an additional treatment for cattle with lactic acidosis.