Main goal of the paper is to present the algorithm serving to solve the heat conduction inverse problem. Authors consider the heat conduction equation with the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative and with the second and third kind boundary conditions. This type of model with fractional derivative can be used for modelling the heat conduction in porous media. Authors deal with the heat conduction inverse problem, which, in this case, consists in identifying an unknown thermal conductivity coefficient. Measurements of temperature, in selected point of the region, are the input data for investigated inverse problem. Basing on this information, a functional describing the error of approximate solution is created. Minimizing of this functional is necessary to solve the inverse problem. In the presented approach the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm is used for minimization.