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Abstract

Our cytomorphological study of various populations of Elsholtzia ciliata (Lamiaceae) collected from high-altitude sites of Kashmir Himalaya revealed two euploid cytomorphotypes, diploid (n=8) and tetraploid (n=16), growing sympatrically but inhabiting two different habitats. This is the first report of tetraploid (4×) E. ciliata from the Indian subcontinent. We found the course of meiois to be normal in diploids, but tetraploid individuals showed chromosome and meiotic irregularities: cytomixis at early prophase I, stickiness at metaphase I, and chromosome bridges at anaphase I. In tetraploids, 23 of the 26 pollen mother cells observed at metaphase I showed 0-6 quadrivalents, suggesting that the tetraploid is a segmental allopolyploid. Microsporogenesis was also abnormal in tetraploids, showing the formation of triads. All these anomalies are conducive to lower reproductive potential (40.70%) in tetraploids than in diploids (90.50%). Significant morphological differences between the two cytotypes are presented.
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Abstract

The paper reports meiotic studies on 50 populations comprising 12 species belonging to 5 genera of Caryophyllaceae from the Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in Arenaria kashmirica (n=20), Silene conoidea (n=20), S. edgeworthii (n=12 and n=24), S. moorcroftiana (n=24), S. nepalensis (n=12), Stellaria media (n=13), S. monosperma (n=13) and S. semivestita (n=13) are reported for the first time. The chromosome numbers in Lychnis coronaria (n=12) and Silene vulgaris (n=24) are given for the first time from India, along with Gypsophilla ceratioides (n=15) from the Western Himalayas. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Silene conoidea, S. edgeworthii, S. vulgaris, Stellaria media, S. monosperma and S. semivestita. The course of meiosis was abnormal in all studied populations of Lychnis coronaria. Abnormal microsporogenesis (cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges) led to reduced pollen fertility and differences in pollen grain size.
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Abstract

Abstract Worldwide chromosome number information has been compiled from the literature for monocotyledonous genera whose members have been cytologically studied in the last three years from Kangra District (Himachal Pradesh) and Kashmir (Jammu & Kashmir) in the Western Himalayas, comprising 143 species of 86 genera in 12 families, many in the family Poaceae. Chromosome number information from the literature is supplemented with new and varied reports for 54 species/56 taxa from the present study. Overall, the chromosome numbers range from 2n=10 to 2n=120. Some species in all genera show a large number of cytotypes, clearly highlighting the role of inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity as well as polyploidy and dysploidy. The basic chromosome numbers in all 86 genera are reconsidered. Monobasic genera are more common in Poaceae, and polyba-sic genera are more common in the other 11 families. Polyploidy in the different genera ranges from 3x to 40x, and is quite high in certain genera (18x in Avena, Bothriochloa, Isachne, Helictotrichon and Panicum; 19x in Saccharum; 24x in Tradescantia; 28x in Eleocharis; 32x in Cyperus; 36x in Andropogon; 38x in Poa; 40x in Dioscorea). An updated checklist of chromosome number variability in these genera is given for India and world-wide.
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