The paper describes the behavior of the liquid in a container that moves with a constant speed along a track consisting of three arcs. Such a complicated track shape generates complex form of inertia forces acting on the liquid and generates the sloshing effect. The behavior of the tank container vehicle is affected by the time-dependent inertia forces associated with the transient sloshing motion of the liquid in the non-inertial frame. These internal excitations, acting on a tank construction, can cause a loss of stability of the vehicle. For that reason, the authors analyze the dynamic loads acting on the walls of the tank truck container. The variation of the position of the liquid cargo gravity center, that depends on the filling level of the container, is also analyzed. The simulations were performed according to the varying fill level, which was 20%, 50% and 80% of a liquid in the whole tank volume. The simulations were carried out for a one-compartment container. Another aim of this study was the investigation of the influence of container division (tank with one, two and three compartments) on behavior of the liquid. These simulations considered only the half-filled container which was treated as a dangerous configuration prohibited by the law regulations for one-compartment tank. The results of simulation are presented in the form of visualization of temporary liquid free surface shape, variation of forces and moments, as well as frequency analysis. The results of simulation were analyzed, and some general conclusion were derived, providing the material for future investigation and modifications of the law regulations.
Cultural landscape indicators are quantitative and qualitative measures which related to the diverse features of the environment, including the material and non-material cultural heritage and the landscape physiognomy. They can be analysed in relation to architectural, spatial, social, visual, perceptual, and economic aspects. This article aims to identify such an extensive set of indicators in relation to seven villages located in the Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland. The com-mon feature of the analysed areas is their strong association with the lake or river, which was emphasized by the use of specific indicators related to the characteristics of the waterside areas. As a result, for each locality 18 indicators were defined. The result showed that the highest quality of the cultural landscape possess Wola Uhruska, Lake Krasne and Bug river in Wola Uhruska, the lowest feature Grabniak and river Wieprz in Kijany. Besides, it was showed that villages generally are of higher quality of cultural landscape than water areas connected to them.
The paper presents the results of partially categorized interviews conducted among the inhabitants of the nine lakeside villages located in the Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie lakeland. The aim of the study was to show how the inhabitants of rural areas featuring high natural values perceive the environment of their own village and what are their landscape preferences. The article presents the landscape elements which, according to the respondents, are the most and the least attractive in terms of aesthetics values as well as are considered to be characteristic or distinctive for a given village. Besides, a set of characteristics features and factors determining the landscape values of the analysed areas were presented. The results showed that the inhabitants attach little importance to the aesthetics values of their dwelling-place. It was also shown that lakes are considered, by the majority of the respondents, as landscape elements of the minor significance. The most important feature deciding on the villages aesthetic qualities occurred to be the law and order referring to the spatial, technical and visual aspects of buildings and sites resulted from the fact that an owner is taking care of a given place. Recently renovated or new sites and objects obtained the highest rate.
Changes in the land use structure, which are observed in recent years, generally indicate their negative impact on ecological quality considered in the landscape scale. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether such a trend also applies to protected areas, such as land-scape parks (LP). As research areas four parks located within the Roztocze and Solska Forest (Poland) were selected. Three factors were analyzed as an surrogate indicators of the ecological quality: the degree of anthropogenic transformation of land cover forms, landscape diversity and the degree of landscape fragmentation. The study included data for the years 2004 and 2012 and was based on the GIS and orthophotomaps analysis. The results showed a lack of general trends for the whole analyzed region. The impact of changes in the land use structure on the ecological values can be defined as positive for Krasnobród LP and South Roztocze LP. In the case of Szczebrzeszyn LP and Solska Forest LP the impact is difficult to determine due to the different results obtained on the basis of selected indicators. Therefore, in order to totally illustrate the analyzed dependence the landscape structure in other periods of time should be analyzed, as well as the correlations between the defined changes and a variety of natural and cultural considerations.
The paper presents an original method for assessing the landscape physiognomy of the rural public spaces. It takes into account both the purely aesthetic qualities as well as those that affect the functionality, attractiveness and significance of a given space. The following features are evaluated: coziness, availability, the nature of the edges, presence of greenery, presence of water ecosystems, presence of landscape dominants and landmarks, opening and view connec-tions, presence of negative elements, local identity and tradition, bendiness, and the nature of light. The method has been applied to evaluate the selected rural public spaces of the Polesie region realized in the years 2008–2015. The study revealed that 40% of the analyzed places were rated positively, 33% neutrally and 27% negatively. The article examines the types of spaces which obtained the highest and the lowest raring position, as well as features that affect this as-sessment. Besides, the analysis of main advantages and disadvantages of newly created public spaces show direction of their improvement.