This paper studies flows on the labour market in Poland in 1995‒2008. We show that the main driving force behind the unemployment rate is the behaviour of outflow to employment. In addition, this flow is found to be procyclical, while the separation rate is acyclical.
Matched sampling is a methodology used to estimate treatment effects. A caliper mechanism is used to achieve better similarity among matched pairs. We investigate finite sample properties of matching with caliper and propose a slight modification to the existing mechanism. The simulation study compare performance of both methods and show that standard caliper perform well only in case of constant treatment or uniform propensity score distribution. Secondly, in a case of non-uniform distribution and non-uniform treatment the dynamic caliper method outperform standard caliper matching.
The aim of this paper was to estimate the gender wage gap in Poland and in the 16 NUTS2 Polish regions in 2010, and to verify the predictions of the spatial monopsony model for Poland with a newly created, harmonized database for wages of individuals in Poland. According to the model, the unexplained part of the gender wage gap, identified with wage discrimination, tend to be lower in regions with more competition between employers. The results of the analyses performed in this paper show that in more urbanized regions the average wages are higher than in the rural ones. In each of the 16 NUTS2 Polish regions, women earn less than men. Raw differences in wages between men and women are largest in the most urbanized regions but a significant part of the differences in those regions can be explained by differences in workers’ characteristics, especially by different sectoral structure of employment. The part of the gender wage gap which remains unexplained, and in the literature is commonly attached to discrimination, is the highest in rural regions of Eastern Poland in line with the predictions of the spatial monopsony model.