The paper presents traditional analogue and digital techniques in partial discharge measurement. The discharge current pulses are measured from high voltage machines like power plant generators and transformers. The presented modern digital techniques are suitable for all measurements where impulse energy will be calculated.
The Multi-Tone (MT) signal with uniform amplitudes can be used for DAC testing. This paper shows an easier way to generate a MT signal using several impulse signals. The article also analyzes qualities of methods for testing the dynamic parameters of Digital to Analog Converters using an impulse signal. The MT, Damped Sine Wave (DSW) and Sinx/x (SINC) signals will be used as the source for these tests. The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) and Signal to noise and distortion (SINAD) are evaluated in the frequency domain and they are modified using the Crest Factor (CF) correction and compared with the standard results of the Sine Wave FFT test. The first advantage of the test using an impulse signal is that you need fewer input parameters to create the band signal for testing the DAC. The second one is to reduce the testing time using a band signal in comparison with multiple tests using a single sine wave.
A limited ability to discriminate between different materials is the fundamental problem with all conventional eddy-current-based metal detectors. This paper presents the use, evaluation and classification of nontraditional excitation signals for eddy-current metal detectors to improve their detection and discrimination ability. The presented multi-frequency excitation signals are as follows: a step sweep sine wave, a linear frequency sweep and sin(x)/x signals. All signals are evaluated in the frequency domain. Amplitude and phase spectra and polar graphs of the detector output signal are used for classification and discrimination of the tested objects. Four different classifiers are presented. The classification results obtained with the use of poly-harmonic signals are compared with those obtained with a classical single-tone method. Multifrequency signals provide more detailed information, due to the response function – the frequency characteristic of a detected object, than standard single-tone methods. Based on the measurements and analysis, a metal object can be better distinguished than when using a single-tone method.
This document analyses qualities of methods used for testing dynamical parameters of Digital-to-Analog Converters (DAC) using a multi-frequency signal. As the source for these signals, Amplitude Modulated (AM) and Frequency Modulated (FM) signals are used. These signals are often used in radio engineering. Results of the tests, like Effective Number of Bits (ENOB), Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD), are evaluated in the frequency domain and they are compared with standard results of Sine Wave FFT test methods. The aim of this research is firstly to test whether it is possible to test a DAC using modulated signals, secondly to reduce testing time, while estimating band performance of DAC.
This paper describes the theoretical background of electromagnetic induction from metal objects modelling. The response function of a specific case of object shape - a homogenous sphere from ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic material is introduced. Experimental data measured by a metal detector excited with a linearly frequency-swept signal are presented. As a testing target various spheres from different materials and sizes were used. These results should lead to better identification of the buried object.