The results from a hydrological monitoring program of Breelva basin (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) have been analysed to improve the understanding of the Werenskiöld Glacier system’s functioning in the High Arctic. Hydrographs of a 44 km 2 river basin (27 km 2 of which was covered by a glacier) were analysed for the period 2007–2012. Seasonal discharge fluctuations were linked to glacier ablation and meteorological parameters, including atmospheric circulation types. A dichotomy was found in the discharge peaks generation during the hydrologically active season, with the main role played by snow and ice melt events during its first part and the rainfall regime dominating its second part. Foehn type strong winds played a significant role in the generation of ablation type floods ( e.g. in August 2011). A simple classification of the runoff regime was applied to the examined six−year period, resulting in the identification of its three types: the ablation type (dominant in 2007 and 2009), the rainfall type (in the years 2011–2012), and the mixed type (during 2008 and 2010). According to publications the river flow season in Spitsbergen begins in June and end with freeze−up in September or at the beginning of October. Recently, this season for Breelva tend to be extended with the mid−May onset and end in the second part of October. A multiannual trend was noted that reflects a growing importance of rainfalls, especially in September. Rainfall waters play a more distinct role in outflow from the Breelva catchment recently.
Constantly increasing prevalence of allergic diseases determines the attempts to elaborate the therapeutic strategies activating immune tolerance to particular allergen. Our current research focuses on the antigen-specifi c action of CD8+ suppressor T (Ts) lymphocytes induced in mice by intravenous administration of a high dose of haptenated syngeneic erythrocytes. While the regulatory activity of Ts cells mediated by exosome-delivered miRNA-150 is well defi ned, the mechanism of their induction remained unclear. Th erefore, the current studies investigated the immune eff ects induced in mice by intravenous administration of contact allergens coupled to syngeneic erythrocytes. In mouse models of hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin, we have shown that intravenous administration of hapten-coupled erythrocytes failed to induce CHS effector cells. Moreover, hapten-induced CHS reaction occurred to be suppressed in mice intravenously administered with syngeneic erythrocytes coupled with protein allergen. Finally, we have demonstrated that intravenously administered allergen induces immune tolerance only when bound to syngeneic erythrocytes, proving that intravenously delivered allergens are deprived of their immunizing properties when coupled with membrane of self cells. Altogether, our current studies suggest that alteration of self cell membrane by allergen binding is enough to induce Ts cell-mediated immune tolerance to nonpathogenic agents, which express a great translational potential in such conditions as allergies and hypersensitivity-related autoimmune disorders.
In this paper, the influence of Mo addition on the structure and mechanical properties of the NiCoMnIn alloys have been studied. Series of polycrystalline NiCoMnIn alloys containing from 0 to 5 mas.% of Mo were produced by the arc melting technique. For the alloys containing Mo, two-phase microstructure was observed. Mo-rich precipitates were distributed randomly in the matrix. The relative volume fraction of the precipitates depends on the Mo content. The numbers of the Mo rich precipitates increases with the Mo contents. The structures of the phases were determined by the TEM. The mechanical properties of the alloys are strongly affected by Mo addition contents. Brittleness of the alloys increases with the Mo contents.