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Abstract

This article deals with the problem of the knowledge’s utility. This issue is considered from three perspectives. The dualistic perspective is based on the two-component structure: knowledge–reality; the subject–the object. In this regard, the knowledge’s utility is measured by the measure of the power that can be obtained over the world. From the monistic perspective knowledge is useful if it allows the internal improvement of the bearer of the knowledge. Knowledge in terms of the emergent system arises in the fluid cognitive relationship between components of changing system. Relations between the system (whole) and units (part of ) are variable and undetermined by the specificity of the individual components which are also reciprocal and mutually forming.
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Abstract

This article is in a sense a dialogue devoted to the presence of conspiracy theories on social media and mass culture. The authors present the current state of research on the development of digital culture and its social consequences. Next, a case study of the existence of the conspiracy theory of so-called Wielka Lechia is presented. In the analysis the authors combine theoretical and technical considerations of Web 2.0 with research inquiry, which is the analysis of the structure of the Great Lechia theory in social media. The problem of the popularity of the concept of Paweł Szydłowski's and Janusz Bieszk's has been referred to a wider context related to the modern functioning of historical knowledge on the Web. The factual orientation of historical education and the influence of social media on the functioning of the social dimension of history and historians have been indicated as the reason for the current state of the problem. Finally, the authors refer to the digital version of pseudoscience to its earlier analog counterparts and make a structural comparison of both. The effect of this confrontation is to point the phenomenon of remediation of conspiracy theories and the growing deprofessionalization of discourse, which ultimately leads to the end of the era of intellectual authorities.
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