In the process of coal extraction, a fractured zone is developed in the overburden above the goaf. If the fractured zone is connected with an aquifer, then water inrush may occur. Hence, research and analysis of the height of overburden fractured zone (HOFZ) are of considerable significance. This study focuses on the HOFZ determination in deep coal mining. First, general deformation failure characteristics of overburden were discussed. Second, a new method, numerical simulation by orthogonal design(NSOD), have been proposed to determinate the HOFZ in deep coal mining. Third, the validity of NSOD is verified in the practical application, compared with empiric al formula in Chinese Regulations and in-situ test. These three methods were applied to determine the HOFZ of working face No. 111303 in No. 5 coal mine. The pre dicted HOFZ of NSOD is found to be similar to the result of the in-situ test (8.9% relative error), whereas the HOFZ calculated by the empirical formula has extremely large error (25.7% relative error). Results show that the NSOD can reliably predict the HOFZ in deep coal mining and reduce time and expenses required for in-situ test.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the self- healing properties of a commercially-available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) using flexible-wall permeameter. The GCLs are produced by the same factory, but the contents of bentonite are different. Also the hydraulic conductivities (HC) of GCLs with no defect are different. In this study, specimens were completely saturated under the backpressure of 20 kPa before the test. Permeability tests were performed on GCL specimens with penetrating flaw and also on specimens permeated with distilled water and CaCl2 solutions. The test results were presented and discussed. Experimental results showed that the GCL with penetrating flaw did not exhibit complete self-healing in the case of flaw. After 120 days, the hydraulic conductivity increased by approximately an order of magnitude. In addition, CaCl2 solutions had a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity. The research findings might be of interest to researchers and engineers who design liners for landfills and other liquid containment facilities
The full-length cDNA of LeTIR1 gene was isolated from tomato with EST-based in silico cloning followed by RACE amplification. LeTIR1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) 1872 bp long, encoding 624 amino acid residues. The predicted protein LeTIR1 had one F-box motif and eleven leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), all of which are highly conserved in TIR1 proteins of other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LeTIR1 protein shared high similarity with other known TIR1 proteins. Both sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested that LeTIR1 is a TIR1 homologue and encodes an F-box protein in tomato. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that LeTIR1 was expressed constitutively in all organs tested, with higher expression in stem than root, leaf, flower and fruit. Its expression level was positively correlated with the auxin distribution in stem or axillary shoot, and was induced by spraying exogenous IAA.