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Abstract

Stability of silver nanoparticles strongly influences the potential of their application. The literature shows wide possibilities of nanoparticles preparation, which has significantly impact on their properties. Therefore, the improvement of AgNPs preparation plays a key role in the case of their practical use. The pH values of the environment are one of the important factors, which directly influences stability of AgNPs. We present a comparing study of the silver nanoparticles prepared by „bottom-up“ methods over by chemical synthesis and biosynthesis using AgNO3 (0.29 mM) solution. For the biosynthesis of the silver nanoparticles, the green freshwater algae Parachlorella kessleri and Citrus limon extracts were used as reducing and stabilizing agents. Chemically synthesized AgNPs were performed using sodium citrate (0.5%) as a capping agent and 0.01% gelatine as a reducing agent. The formation and long term stability of those silver nanoparticles synthesized either biologically and chemically were clearly observed by solution colour changes and confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The pH values of formed nanoparticle solutions were 3 and 5.8 for biosynthesized AgNPs using extract of Citrus limon and Parachlorella kessleri, respectively and 7.2 for chemically prepared AgNPs solution using citrate. The SEM as a surface imaging method was used for the characterization of nanoparticle shapes, size distribution and also for resolving different particle sizes. These micrographs confirmed the presence of dispersed and aggregated AgNPs with various shapes and sizes.
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Abstract

In August 2016, tomato plants grown during a hot, wet summer with heavy soil flooding, displaying symptoms of wilting, dead plant, root rot with crown and stem rot, at Beni Suef and Fayoum governorates were examined. A number of 16 fungal isolates were isolated from tomato plants displaying the above symptoms. These isolates were classified as belonging to six species, namely: Alternaria solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Isolates of Pythium spp. were prevalent and were found to be more pathogenic than the other fungal isolates. This species causes damping-off, root rot, sudden death, stem rot and fruit rot. The pathogen was identified as Pythium aphanidermatum based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced using the F. oxysporum strain and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of these spherical particles ranged from 10 to 30 nm. In vitro, biogenic AgNPs showed antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. In greenhouse and field experiments, AgNPs treatment significantly reduced the incidence of dead tomato plants due to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum compared to the control. All of the investigated treatments were effective and the treatment of root dipping plus soil drenching was the most effective. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes P. aphanidermatum on tomato in Egypt for the first time. Also, biogenic AgNPs could be used for controlling root rot disease caused by this pathogen.
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