In this article, the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) to the worldwide electricity production was analyzed. The scale of development and the importance of RES in the global economy as well as the issues and challenges related to variability of these sources were studied. In addition, the chemical conversion of excess energy to renewable methanol has been presented. The European Union regulations and targets for the years 2020 and 2030 concerning greenhouse gases reduction were taken into consideration. These EU restrictions exact the further development of renewable energy sources, in particular, the improvement of their efficiency which is closely related to economics. Moreover, as a part of this work, energy storage were described as one of the ways to increase the competitiveness of renewable energy sources with respect to conventional energy. A method for the conversion of carbon dioxide separated from high-carbon industries with hydrogen obtained by the over-production of green energy were described. The use of methanol in the chemical industry and global market have been reviewed and thus an increasing demand was observed. Additionally, the application of renewable methanol as fuels, in pure form and after a conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether and fatty acid methyl esters has been discussed. Hence, the necessity of modifying car engines in order to use pure methanol and its combination with petrol also was analyzed.
CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology is one of the methods that limit the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, the high cost of capturing CO2 in this technology is a major obstacle to the implementation of this solution by power plants. The reduction of costs is expected primarily on the side of the capture and separation of CO2 from flue/ industrial gas. The article presents the financial performance of the most popular amine technology (MEA) against mesoporous material about MCM-41 structure obtained from fly ash, impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI), for CCS installations. The study was conducted for an investment comprising three key components that provide a full value chain in CCS validation (capture, transport and storage). The mineralogical studies and determination of the physicochemical properties of mesoporous material produced from waste materials such as fly ash allowed us to identify the best class sorbents of MCM-41, which can be used in CO2 capture technologies. Developing an innovative relationship not only allows 100% of CO2 to be removed but also reduces operating costs (OPEX), primarily including energy by 40% and multiple material costs relative to amine mixtures such as MEA.
The article has presented the assumptions underlying the organization of emissions trading of greenhouse gases with a particular emphasis on CO2 emission allowances. Through the analysis of the literature, international activities were undertaken aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, starting from the First World Climate Conference organized in 1979. The origins and guidelines of the Kyoto Protocol were also given considerable attention. In addition to the description of the key assumptions of the Protocol and its main components, the characteristics of international trade in Kyoto units were also included. The mechanisms involved in international trade and the types of units traded in a detailed manner are described. In the next part of the article, emission trading systems operating in the world are characterized. In the second part of the paper special attention was paid to the conditionings of the European market, i.e. European Emissions Trading System – EU ETS. Historical events were presented that gave rise to the creation of the EU ETS. In the next steps, the types of units that are tradable were described. Furthermore, the trade commodity exchanges on which trade is conducted, the key factors determining the price of individual allowances are also indicated. In the last part of the article, relatively recent issues – the IED Directive and the BAT conclusions have been pointed out. Referring to the applicable regulations, the impact of their implementation on the situation of entities obliged to limit greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed. In the final phase, an attempt was made to assess the impact of IED and BAT to electricity prices.
The article describes the testing of four selected samples of limestone originating from four commercially exploited deposits. The tests of sorbents included a physicochemical analysis and calcination in different atmospheres. The main aim of the tests was to determine the possibilities for using limestone during combustion in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. Tests in a synthetic flue gas composition make it possible to assess the possibility of CaCO3 decomposition in atmospheres with an increased CO2 concentration.
Forests may play important role in partial neutralization of CO2 emission. To maximize their potential it is unavoidable to divide them into forests that will be allowed to evolve toward natural state and forest predisposed for timber production, supplemented with forest plantations. Natural forests store almost twice more carbon in biomass and soil than managed forests, and carbon contained in wood from plantations and timber-producing forests will be frozen long time in wooden constructions. Gasification of wood debris instead of burning will allow for production of biocarbon that added to soil will residue there through decades, and will decrease necessary amount of artificial fertilizers, which production is an important source of carbon dioxide. Forests evolving to natural state will be less prone to fire and hurricanes, and will better protect biodiversity. Presented project is not contradictory to the project “The Forest Carbon Farms” of State Forests, but allows to reach better results in shorter time and likely at lower cost.
CO2 emission from combustion fossil fuels is considered as the primary factor in the global warming. Different methods for separation CO2 from combustion flue gases are extensively used across the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the most important technological solutions of CO2 separation. For this reason chemical absorption, physical absorption, adsorption approach, membrane filtration and cryogenic process were researched. Concluding, selection of the right method for carbon dioxide capture separation is a complex issue and a range of technological and economic factors should be taken into consideration prior to application on the industrial scale.
Hydrogen as a raw material finds its main use and application on the Polish market in the chemical industry. Its potential applications for the production of energy in fuel cell systems or as a fuel for automobiles are widely analyzed and commented upon ever more frequently. At present, hydrogen is produced worldwide mainly from natural gas, using the SMR technology or via the electrolysis of water. Countries with high levels of coal resources are exceptional in that respect, as there the production of hydrogen is increasingly based on gasification processes. China is such an example. There some 68% of hydrogen is generated from coal. The paper discusses the economic efficiency of hydrogen production technologies employing lignite gasification, comparing it with steam reforming of natural gas technology (SMR). In present Polish conditions, this technology seems to be the most probable alternative for natural gas substitution. For the purpose of evaluating the economic efficiency, a model has been developed, in which a sensitivity analysis has been carried out. An example of the technological process of energy-chemical processing of lignite has been presented, based on the gasification process rooted in disperse systems, characteristics of the fuel has been discussed, as well as carbon dioxide emission issues. Subsequently, the assumed methodology of economic assessment has been described in detail, together with its key assumptions. Successively, based on the method of discounted cash flows, the unit of hydrogen generation has been determined, which was followed by a detailed sensitivity analysis, taking the main risk factors connected with lignite/coal and natural gas price relations, as well as the price of carbon credits (allowances for emission of CO2) into account.
Paper presents the results of numerical modelling of a rectangular tube filled with a mixture of air and CO2 by means of the induced standing wave. Assumed frequency inducing the acoustic waves corresponds to the frequency of the thermoacoustic engine. In order to reduce the computational time the engine has been replaced by the mechanical system consisting of a piston. This paper includes the results of model studies of an acoustic tube filled with a mixture of air and CO2 in which a standing wave was induced.
This paper provides a discussion concerning results of CO2 removal from a gas mixture by the application of aqueous solutions of ethanoloamine (MEA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) promoted with piperazine (PZ). The studies were conducted using a process development unit. Research of such a scale provides far more reliable representation of the actual industrial process than modelling and laboratory tests. The studies comprised comparative analyses entailing identical energy supplied to a reboiler as well as tests conducted at similar process efficiencies for both solvents. The results thus obtained imply that using AMP/PZ enables reduction of the solvent heat duty. Moreover, while using AMP/PZ temperature decrease was also observed in the columns.
In this work, a new dual-evaporator CO2transcritical refrigeration cycle with two ejectors is proposed. In this new system, we proposed to recover the lost energy of condensation coming off the gas cooler and operate the refrigeration cycle ejector free and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analysis. The simulation results for the modified cycle indicate more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in the CO2vapor compression cycle using ejector as an expander ranging up to 46%. The exergetic analysis for this system is made. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system.
An analysis of energy efficiency for transcritical compression unit with CO2 (R744) as the refrigerant has been carried out using empirical operating characteristics for the two-phase ejector. The first stage of the refrigerant compression is carried out in the ejector. The criterion adopted for the estimation of energy efficiency for the cycle is the coefficient of performance COP. The analysis is performed for the heat pump and refrigeration systems. The results of COP for the systems with the ejector has been compared with the COPL values for the single stage Linde cycle.
Szargut proposed the algorithm for determination of the influence of irreversibility of components of thermal process on the emission of CO2 . In the presented paper, basing on Szargut's proposal, the example of analysis of influence of operational parameters of coal fired power plant on the local increase of CO2 emission is presented. The influence of operational parameters on the local exergy losses appearing in components of investigated power plant are simulating making use of the semi-empirical model of power plant.
In order to improve the efficiency of power generation system and reduce CO2 emissions power plants work at high temperature and pressure. Under such conditions modified steel 9Cr, which fulfils the requirements concerning creep resistance, is used. However, Cr2O3 formed on the steel does not protect the construction material in the atmosphere which contains CO2 and SO2. The aim of the experiment was to study the behaviour of P91 steel in CO2 atmosphere with the addition of 1% and 5 vol.% of SO2 at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900°C). It was concluded that the corrosion rate of P91 steel is increasing with a rise in temperature. Scales formed in CO2 atmosphere at 900°C contain a mixture of iron oxides in the outer layer and chromium-iron spinel in the inner layer. The FeS and Ni were found in the inner zone of scales formed in SO2 atmosphere.
The main objective of the article is to assess the changes in carbon dioxide emissions in residential sector caused by the implementation of the plans contained in the Air Protection Programs, anti-smog resolutions adopted in 9 voivodeships and the nationwide “Clean Air” program. The reduction of emissions of pollutants which directly affecting air quality and human health, i.e. particulate matter and benz(a)pyrene, which residential sector is the main source, can also affect the amount of emitted of carbon dioxide. To determine the changes in carbon dioxide emissions in the residential sector, emissions of CO2 in base year of 2017 from various energy carriers were determined, plans for reducing of low-stack emission were reviewed and the future structure of energy carriers used in households was estimated. The processes of increasing the efficiency of energy use through both the replacement of boilers and thermomodernization were also taken into account. The obtained results show that the highest CO2 emission reduction of 6% is achieved in case of “Clean Air” program. In frame of this program in 3.5 million of single-family houses a heating system replacement and thermomodernization is planned. Implementation of plans included on Air Protection Programs and anti-smog resolutions can lead to a relatively small (approx. 1%) reduction of CO2 compared to base year 2017. The detailed results of future fuel consumption and CO2 emission for individual voivodeships and for the whole of Poland was presented.
Results are presented concerning the separation of the mixtures of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen in membrane modules with modified polysulphone or polyimide as active layers. The feed gas was a mixture with composition corresponding to that of a stream leaving stage 1 of a hybrid adsorptivemembrane process for the removal of CO2 from dry flue gas. In gas streams containing 70 vol.% of CO2, O2 content was varied between 0 and 5 vol.%. It is found that the presence of oxygen in the feed gas lowers the purity of the product CO2 in all the modules studied, while the recovery depends on the module. In the PRISM module (Air Products) an increase in O2 feed concentration, for the maximum permeate purity, led to a rise in CO2 recovery, whereas for the UBE modules the recovery did not change.
The paper presents the basic input data and modelling results of IGCC system with membrane CO2 capture installation and without capture. The models were built using commercial software (Aspen and GateCycle) and with the use of authors’ own computational codes. The main parameters of the systems were calculated, such as gross and net power, auxiliary power of individual installations and efficiencies. The models were used for the economic and ecological analysis of the systems. The Break Even Point method of analysis was used. The calculations took into account the EU emissions trading scheme. Sensitivity analysis on the influence of selected quantities on break-even price of electricity was performed
The paper is devoted to explication of one of the advantages of heat and electricity cogeneration, rarely considered in technical literature. Usually attention is paid to the fact that heat losses of the heat distribution network are less severe in the case of cogeneration of heat in comparison with its separate production. But this conclusion is also true in other cases when the internal consumption of heat is significant. In this paper it has been proved in the case of two examples concerning trigeneration technology with an absorption chiller cooperating with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant and CHP plant integrated with amine post-combustion CO2processing unit. In both considered cases it might be said that thanks to cogeneration we have to do with less severe consequences of significant demand of heat for internal purposes.
The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.
In the study an accurate energy and economic analysis of the carbon capture installation was carried out. Chemical absorption with the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia was adopted as the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gases. The energy analysis was performed using a commercial software package to analyze the chemical processes. In the case of MEA, the demand for regeneration heat was about 3.5 MJ/kg of CO2, whereas for ammonia it totalled 2 MJ/kg CO2. The economic analysis was based on the net present value (NPV) method. The limit price for CO2emissions allowances at which the investment project becomes profitable (NPV = 0) was more than 160 PLN/Mg for MEA and less than 150 PLN/Mg for ammonia. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to determine the limit price of CO2emissions allowances depending on electricity generation costs at different values of investment expenditures.
The paper presents the results and analysis of biomass processing in order to provide the conditions for the most profitable use of the biomass in modern and efficient power generation systems with particular attention put on the decrease of the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and no need to develop carbon capture and storage plants. The promising concept of CO2 storage via the production of biochar and the advantages of its application as a promising carbon sink is also presented and the results are supported by authors’ own experimental data. The idea enables the production of electricity, as well as (optionally) heat and cold from the thermal treatment of biomass with simultaneous storage of the CO2 in a stable and environmentally-friendly way. The key part of the process is run in a specially-designed reactor where the biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen. The evolved volatile matter is used to produce heat/cold and electricity while the remaining solid product (almost completely dry residue) is sequestrated in soil. The results indicate that in order to reduce the emission of CO2 the biomass should rather be ‘cut and char’ than just ‘cut and burn’, particularly that the charred biomass may also become a significant source of nutrients for the plants after sequestration in soil.
The paper deals with the computational fluid dynamics modelling of carbon dioxide capture from flue gases in the post combustioncapture method, one of the available carbon capture and storage technologies. 30% aqueous monoethanolamine solution was used as a solvent in absorption process. The complex flow system including multiphase countercurrent streams with chemical reaction and heat transfer was considered to resolve the CO2 absorption. The simulation results have shown the realistic behaviour and good consistency with experimental data. The model was employed to analyse the influence of liquid to gas ratio on CO2 capture efficiency.
With the increase of agricultural production, residues of crop are the main source of organic matter in the soil and they are alternatives to inorganic fertilizers. For this purpose, effects of organic residues (cotton stalk, maize stalk, almond bark) commonly grown in Turkey were investigated for some soil microbial activity in clay soil. In this study, incubation experiment was set up. Five doses (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) of organic residues (maize stalks, cotton stalks or almond bark) were applied to soil. Soil microbiological properties of soil samples such as CO2 respiration, dehydrogenase and urease activity were determined. According to the results obtained, maize stalk, cotton stalks and almond bark applications increased some soil microbiological activities, such as CO2 respiration, dehydrogenase and urease activities according to control soil. Maize stalk in comparison to other residues affects better on the biological properties of the soil. It is determined that enhancing effects of the added organic residues (maize stalk, cotton stalk, almond bark) into the soil were changed according to the type of organic residues, dosage and application terms.
Culture gas atmosphere is one of the most important factors affecting embryo development in vitro. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of CO concentration on the subsequent pre-implantation developmental capacity of pig embryos in vitro, including embryos obtained via parthenogenesis, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Pig embryos were developed in four different CO2 concentrations in air: 3%, 5%, 10%, or 15%. The cleavage rate of pig parthenogenetic, IVF, or ICSI embryos developed in CO2 concen- trations under 5% was the highest. There were no significant differences in the oocyte cleavage rate in ICSI embryos in CO2 concentrations under 3% and 5% (p>0.05). However, as CO2 levels increased (up to 15%) the blastocyst output on day 7, from parthenogenetic, IVF, and ICSI em- bryos, decreased to 0%. These findings demonstrate that CO2 positively affects the developmen- tal capacity of pig embryos. However, high or low CO2 levels do not significantly improve the developmental capacity of pig embryos. The best results were obtained for all of the pig embryos at a 5% CO2 concentration.
Gas emissions from underground sites to the atmosphere depend on many factors. Pressure drops are considered to be the most important. However, emissions can also be observed during the initial phase of the pressure rise, following a previous drop in pressure. On the other hand, gas emissions may not be detected when the pressure drops, especially when a previous pressure rise has taken place. The aim of the research was to determine the role of variations in baric tendency on airflow rate and its direction. To solve this problem a numerical model was built utilizing the Ansys Fluent software package. Subsequently, three scenarios of baric tendency variations were tested: a) rise – drop, b) drop – drop, c) drop – rise. The results showed inert behavior of gases. Under scenario (c), 1 hour after the change in tendency gases still were flowing out to the atmosphere. Considering scenario (a), it was proved that even during a pressure drop gas emissions do not take place, which can be crucial for further determination of the gas hazard at the surface or for assessment of the rate of gas emissions from a particular gas emitter. Scenario (b) merely gave an overview of the process and was mainly used for validation purposes. It gave a maximal CO2 concentration of 2.18%vol (comparable to measurements) and a CO2 mass flow rate 0.15kg/s. Taking into account greenhouse gas emissions this amounted to 514 kg CO2/h.