The article has presented the assumptions underlying the organization of emissions trading of greenhouse gases with a particular emphasis on CO2 emission allowances. Through the analysis of the literature, international activities were undertaken aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, starting from the First World Climate Conference organized in 1979. The origins and guidelines of the Kyoto Protocol were also given considerable attention. In addition to the description of the key assumptions of the Protocol and its main components, the characteristics of international trade in Kyoto units were also included. The mechanisms involved in international trade and the types of units traded in a detailed manner are described. In the next part of the article, emission trading systems operating in the world are characterized. In the second part of the paper special attention was paid to the conditionings of the European market, i.e. European Emissions Trading System – EU ETS. Historical events were presented that gave rise to the creation of the EU ETS. In the next steps, the types of units that are tradable were described. Furthermore, the trade commodity exchanges on which trade is conducted, the key factors determining the price of individual allowances are also indicated. In the last part of the article, relatively recent issues – the IED Directive and the BAT conclusions have been pointed out. Referring to the applicable regulations, the impact of their implementation on the situation of entities obliged to limit greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed. In the final phase, an attempt was made to assess the impact of IED and BAT to electricity prices.
Results are presented concerning the separation of the mixtures of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen in membrane modules with modified polysulphone or polyimide as active layers. The feed gas was a mixture with composition corresponding to that of a stream leaving stage 1 of a hybrid adsorptivemembrane process for the removal of CO2 from dry flue gas. In gas streams containing 70 vol.% of CO2, O2 content was varied between 0 and 5 vol.%. It is found that the presence of oxygen in the feed gas lowers the purity of the product CO2 in all the modules studied, while the recovery depends on the module. In the PRISM module (Air Products) an increase in O2 feed concentration, for the maximum permeate purity, led to a rise in CO2 recovery, whereas for the UBE modules the recovery did not change.
With the increase of agricultural production, residues of crop are the main source of organic matter in the soil and they are alternatives to inorganic fertilizers. For this purpose, effects of organic residues (cotton stalk, maize stalk, almond bark) commonly grown in Turkey were investigated for some soil microbial activity in clay soil. In this study, incubation experiment was set up. Five doses (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) of organic residues (maize stalks, cotton stalks or almond bark) were applied to soil. Soil microbiological properties of soil samples such as CO2 respiration, dehydrogenase and urease activity were determined. According to the results obtained, maize stalk, cotton stalks and almond bark applications increased some soil microbiological activities, such as CO2 respiration, dehydrogenase and urease activities according to control soil. Maize stalk in comparison to other residues affects better on the biological properties of the soil. It is determined that enhancing effects of the added organic residues (maize stalk, cotton stalk, almond bark) into the soil were changed according to the type of organic residues, dosage and application terms.
Culture gas atmosphere is one of the most important factors affecting embryo development in vitro. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of CO concentration on the subsequent pre-implantation developmental capacity of pig embryos in vitro, including embryos obtained via parthenogenesis, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Pig embryos were developed in four different CO2 concentrations in air: 3%, 5%, 10%, or 15%. The cleavage rate of pig parthenogenetic, IVF, or ICSI embryos developed in CO2 concen- trations under 5% was the highest. There were no significant differences in the oocyte cleavage rate in ICSI embryos in CO2 concentrations under 3% and 5% (p>0.05). However, as CO2 levels increased (up to 15%) the blastocyst output on day 7, from parthenogenetic, IVF, and ICSI em- bryos, decreased to 0%. These findings demonstrate that CO2 positively affects the developmen- tal capacity of pig embryos. However, high or low CO2 levels do not significantly improve the developmental capacity of pig embryos. The best results were obtained for all of the pig embryos at a 5% CO2 concentration.
Investigations were carried out to ensure the granulated blast furnace (GBF) slag as an alternative mould material in foundry industry by assessing the cast products structure property correlations. Sodium silicate-CO2 process was adopted for preparing the moulds. Three types of moulds were made with slag, silica sand individually and combination of these two with 10% sodium silicate and 20 seconds CO2 gassing time. A356 alloy castings were performed on these newly developed slag moulds. The cast products were investigated for its metallography and mechanical properties. Results reveal that cast products with good surface finish and without any defects were produced. Faster heat transfers in slag moulds enabled the cast products with fine and refined grain structured; and also, lower Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) values were observed than sand mould. Slag mould casting shows improved mechanical properties like hardness, compression, tensile and impact strength compared to sand mould castings. Two types of tensile fracture modes, namely cleavage pattern with flat surfaces representing Al−Si eutectic zone and the areas of broken Fe-rich intermetallic compounds which appear as flower-like morphology was observed in sand mould castings. In contrast, GBF slag mould castings exhibit majority in dimple fracture morphology with traces of cleavage fracture. Charpy impact fractured surfaces of sand mould castings shows both transgranular and intergranular fracture modes. Only intergranular fracture mode was noticed in both GBF slag and mixed mould castings.
The paper presents the impact of the reformed EU ETS (Emission Trading Scheme – ETS in the European Union) on the currently operating market for trading in CO2 emission allowances. The new Directive introduced a number of changes aimed at tightening the climate policy, which the Polish energy sector based mainly on hard coal may mean an increase in the costs of electricity production, and thus an increase in the cost of the entire economy. The main goal of the changes is to achieve one of the objectives the European Union has set for itself, i.e. the reduction of CO2 emissions by 40% until the year 2030. These assumptions are the result of joint arrangements of the EU countries under the Paris Agreement on climate change adopted in 2015. The Directive introduces a new market stability reserve mechanism (MSR) which, according to its assumptions, is designed to ensure a demand and supply balance of the ETS. Bearing the balance in mind, it means the reduction of excess allowances, which, although their number is decreasing, it is decreasing to slowly according to EU legislators, still oscillating around 2 billion EUA. The paper also draws attention to the rigorous assumptions adopted in the new Directive, aimed at increasing the price of CO2, that is the costs in electricity production. Due to manually-controlled prices, are we doomed to high CO2 prices and therefore the prices of electricity? What are its estimated maximum levels? Will the new assumptions encourage the Member States to switch to lowcarbon technologies? Can they weaken the economies of countries that are currently based mainly on coal energy sources, and strengthen countries where green energy is developed?
Gas emissions from underground sites to the atmosphere depend on many factors. Pressure drops are considered to be the most important. However, emissions can also be observed during the initial phase of the pressure rise, following a previous drop in pressure. On the other hand, gas emissions may not be detected when the pressure drops, especially when a previous pressure rise has taken place. The aim of the research was to determine the role of variations in baric tendency on airflow rate and its direction. To solve this problem a numerical model was built utilizing the Ansys Fluent software package. Subsequently, three scenarios of baric tendency variations were tested: a) rise – drop, b) drop – drop, c) drop – rise. The results showed inert behavior of gases. Under scenario (c), 1 hour after the change in tendency gases still were flowing out to the atmosphere. Considering scenario (a), it was proved that even during a pressure drop gas emissions do not take place, which can be crucial for further determination of the gas hazard at the surface or for assessment of the rate of gas emissions from a particular gas emitter. Scenario (b) merely gave an overview of the process and was mainly used for validation purposes. It gave a maximal CO2 concentration of 2.18%vol (comparable to measurements) and a CO2 mass flow rate 0.15kg/s. Taking into account greenhouse gas emissions this amounted to 514 kg CO2/h.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg) was the subject of the study in two forms: winter cv. 'Muller' (at the rosette stage - the first internode BBCH 30-31) and spring cv. `Feliks' (at the yellow bud stage BBCH 59). The main gas-exchange parameters, net photosynthetic rate (P-N) transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured on leaves prior to the piercing and immediately after the short-term piercing. The effect of mechanical wounding revealed different progress of the gas exchange process for the two forms. Piecewise linear regression with the breakpoint estimation showed that the plants at the same age but at a different vegetal stage, manage mechanical leaf-piercing differently. The differences concerned the stomatal conductance and transpiration changes since for rosette leaves the process consisted of five intervals with a uniform direction, while for stem leaves-of five intervals with a fluctuating direction. These parameters got stabilized within a similar time (220 mins) for both forms. The process of net photosynthetic rate was altered by the plant stages. 'Muller' plants at the rosette stage demonstrated dependence of P-N on time in log-linear progression: y (P-N) = 8.01+ 2.73 log(10) (x t(2)); 7 < t(2) < 220; R-2 = 0.96. For stem leaves of Teliks' plants the process of transpiration, in terms of directions, was convergent with the process of photosynthesis. Those two processes were synchronized from 1st to 114th min of the test (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in plants at the rosette stage and from 26th to 148th min in stem leaves (r = 0.95; p < 0.001).