An analysis has been carried out of the influence of annealing time at the preheating temperature of 650 °C on the change in hardness and alloy structure of lamellar graphite cast iron in the working as well as in the laboratory conditions. This preheat temperature is common during reclaiming welding of castings with complex shapes. The changes in unalloyed cast iron EN-GJL 200 to EN-GJL 300 according to ISO 1690 standard and cast iron with low amount of elements such as Sn, Cu, Cr, and Mo and their combinations were assessed. It was found that the cast iron of higher strength grades has better hardness and structural stability. Cast iron alloyed with chromium or its combinations has the highest stability. In unalloyed cast iron, a partial degradation of pearlite occurs; in alloyed cast iron the structural changes are not conclusive.
The paper presents the initial results of investigation concerning the abrasion resistance of cast iron with nodular, vermicular, or flake graphite. The nodular and vermicular cast iron specimens were cut out of test coupons of the IIb type with the wall thickness equal to 25 mm, while the specimens made of grey cast iron containing flake graphite were cut out either of special casts with 20 mm thick walls or of the original brake disk. The abrasion tests were carried out by means of the T-01M tribological unit working in the pin-on-disk configuration. The counterface specimens (i.e. the disks) were made of the JT6500 brand name friction material. Each specimen was abraded over a distance of 4000 m. The mass losses, both of the specimens and of the counterface disks, were determined by weighting. It was found that the least wear among the examined materials was exhibited by the nodular cast iron. In turn, the smallest abrasion resistance was found in vermicular cast iron and in cast iron containing flake graphite coming from the brake disk. However, while the three types of specimens (those taken from the nodular cast iron and from grey cast iron coming either from the special casts or from the brake disk) have almost purely pearlitic matrix (P95/Fe05), the vermicular cast iron matrix was composed of pearlite and ferrite occurring in the amounts of about 50% each (P50/Fe50). Additionally, it was found that the highest temperature at the cast iron/counterface disk contact point was reached during the tests held for the nodular cast iron, while the lowest one occurred for the case of specially cast grey iron.
Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
The paper deals with hypereutectic high chromium cast irons. The subject of examination was the effect of various alloying elements (Ti, W, Mo, V) on the size of primary carbides and on the resultant material hardness. Using a scanning electron microscope with a wave dispersion analyser, the carbon content in carbides was established. To determine the other elements, an energy dispersion analyser was used. It was found that both the primary and the eutectic carbides were of the M7C3 type and very similar in composition. The carbides always contained Cr and Fe, and also W, Mo, V or Ti, in dependence on the alloying elements used. The structure of materials containing only chromium without any alloying additions exhibited coarse acicular primary carbides. The structure of materials alloyed with another element was always finer. Marked refinement was obtained by Ti alloying.
Topic of this work is to compare metalurgy of cast irons poured into sand moulds and into shell molds at IEG Jihlava company and from it following differencies in structures of thin- and thick-walled castings. This work is dealing with investigation and experimental measurement on surfaces and sections suitable thin- and thick-walled investment castings at IEG Jihlava. Cast irons with flake graphite (grey cast iron) and cast irons with spheroidal graphite (ductile cast iron). Both mechanical and physical properties are determined using calculations from as measured values of wall thicknesses L and Lu, Vickers hardness and remanent magnetism. Measurement results are discussed, findings are formulated and methods for castings metallurgical quality improvement are recommended finally
Ductile irons of the type of Si-Mo are characterized by increased resistance to long-term influence of high temperatures and cyclic temperature changes. They are mainly used in castings of combustion engine exhaust piping and other castings utilized at temperatures of up to 850°C. The aim of the study is to verify the mechanical properties of non-alloyed cast iron EN CSN GJS 450, SiMo4-0.5 and SiMo5-1 ductile irons at temperatures of 700 to 800°C, and the extent of their superficial oxidation after longterm annealing at a temperature of 900°C. Via chemical microanalysis the composition of oxidation products in the surface layer was evaluated.
This work presents a scheme for the manufacture of spherical grinding bodies used in grinding and crushing machinery as a grinding medium from abrasion-resistant cast iron CHKH16 (according to GOST 7769-82) free of shrinkage defects produced by casting into single sand molds with a vertical joint and by usingcoolers. The grinding efficiency in terms of material destruction and energy consumption has been studied according to a wide range of operating parameters and new scheme for calculating the sprue and supply system has been developed by the authors of the article. Its functionality has been substantiated, particularly the use of a central riser acting as a head and the use of coolers. The conducted numerical simulation has shown the dependence of a solid phase formation over time, which characterizes the direction of the system crystallization and determines the locations of the shrinkage defects concentration. The manufacture of the grinding body with a 100 mm diameter using the considered technology is presented in this paper.