In this paper results of microstructural observations for series of CuZn39Pb2 alloys produced from qualified scraps are presented. The individual alloy melts were differentiated in terms of thermal parameters of continuous casting as well as refining methods and modifications. Structural observations performed by SEM and TEM revealed formation of different types of intermetallic phases including “hard particles”. EDS results show that “hard particles” are enrich in silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel elements. Additionally, formation of Al-Fe-Si and Al-Cr in alloy melts was observed as well. It was found that quantity and morphology of intermetallic phases strongly depends upon the chemical composition of raw materials, process parameters, modifiers and refining procedure applied during casting. It was observed that refining process results in very effective refinement of intermetallic phases, whereas modifiers, particularly carbon-based, results in formation of large particles in the microstructure.
The paper consists the problem of developing a scientific toolkit allowing to predict the thermal state of the ingot during its formation in all elements of the casting and rolling complex, between the crystallizer of the continuous casting machine and exit from the furnace. As the toolkit for the decision making task the predictive mathematical model of the ingot temperature field is proposed. Displacement between the various elements of the CRC is accounted for by changing the boundary conditions. Mass-average enthalpy is proposed as a characteristic of ingot cross-section temperature state. The next methods of solving a number of important problems with the use of medium mass enthalpy are developed: determination of the necessary heat capacity of ingots after the continuous casting machine for direct rolling without heating; determination of the rational time of alignment of the temperature field of ingots having sufficient heat capacity for rolling after casting; determination of the total amount of heat (heat capacity) required to supply the metal for heating ingots that have insufficient amount of internal heat.
This article discusses issues related to continuous casting of brass. The tested material was CuZn39Pb2 brass with the use of continuous casting and different parameters of the process. The position consists of a melting furnace with a graphite refining pot of about 4000 cm3 chuting capacity, a graphite crystallizer of 9,5 mm nominal diameter, a primary and secondary cooling system and an extracting system as well. The analysis was carried out in terms of technological parameters of the process and type of charge. Highlighted: feedrate ingot, number of stops, and technological temperatures. The surface quality of the obtained ingots and the structure were analyzed. The most favorable conditions were indicated and technological recommendations indicated. They have been distinguished for ingots for plasticity and other technologies. Favorable casting conditions are low feed and low temperature. Due to the presence of impurities coming from the charge it is disadvantageous to have Ni greater than 0.053% by mass, and Fe more than 0.075% by mass. It is recommended to maintain a high zinc content in the melt which is associated with non-overheating of the metal during casting and earlier melting.
The paper presents the research results of the influence of the precipitation hardening on hardness and microstructure of selected Al-Si and Al-Cu alloys obtained as 30 mm ingots in a horizontal continuous casting process. The ingots were heat treated in process of precipitation hardening i.e. supersaturation with subsequent accelerated or natural ageing. Moreover in the range of the study it has been carried out investigations of chemical constitution, microscopic metallographic with use of scanning electron microscope with EDS analysis system, and hardness measurements using the Brinell method. On basis of obtained results it has been concluded that the chemical constitution of the investigated alloys enables to classify them into Al alloys for the plastic deformation as EN AW-AlSi2Mn (alternatively cast alloy EN AC-AlSi2MgTi) and as EN AW-AlCu4MgSi (alternatively cast alloy EN AC-AlCu4MgTi) grades. Moreover in result of applied precipitation hardening has resulted in the precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution of dispersive particles of secondary phases rich in alloying element i.e. Si and Cu respectively. In consequence it has been obtained increase in hardness in case of AlSi2Mn alloy by approximately 30% and in case of AlCu4MgSi alloy by approximately 20% in comparison to the as-cast state of continuous ingots.
The presented results of investigations are part of a larger study focused on the optimization of the flow and mixing of liquid steel in the industrial tundish of continuous casting machine. The numerical simulations were carried out concern the analysis of hydrodynamic conditions of liquid steel flow in a tundish operating in one of the national steelworks. Numerical simulations were performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent. The research concerns two different speeds of steel casting. In real conditions, these speeds are the most commonly used in the technological process when casting two different groups of steel. As a result of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, predicted spatial distributions of velocity and liquid steel turbulence fields and residence time distribution (RTD) curves were obtained. The volume fractions of different flows occurring in the tundish were also calculated. The results of the research allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of casting speed on the formation of hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in the reactor.
In paper is presented idea of construction and influence of selected parts of stand of horizontal continuous casting on quality of pure Al and AlSi2 alloy ingots. The main parts of the made stand belong to induction furnace, which is also tundish, water cooled continuous casting mould, system of recooling, system of continuous ingot drawing and cutting. Mainly was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure. Effect of structure refinement obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. The results of studies show possibility of effective refinement of Al and AlSi2 alloy primary structure, only with use of horizontal electromagnetic field and without necessity of application of inoculants. This method of inoculation is important, because inoculants decrease the degree of purity and electrical conductivity of pure aluminum and moreover are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots.
In paper is presented results of studies concerning ingot of Al with a purity of 99.5% cast with use of stand of horizontal continuous casting. Mainly together with casting velocity was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure and theirs usability to plastic deformation. Effect of structure refinement and usability to plastic deformation obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that inoculation realized by electromagnetic stirring in range of continuous casting mould guarantees improvement in structure refinement and usability to rolling of pure Al continuous ingots.
The paper presents the research results of horizontal continuous casting of ingots of aluminium alloy containing 2% wt. silicon (AlSi2). Together with the casting velocity (velocity of ingot movement) we considered the influence of electromagnetic stirring in the area of the continuous casting mould on refinement of the ingot’s primary structure and their selected mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation. The effect of primary structure refinement and mechanical properties obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by using traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing additives, i.e. Ti, B and Sr, to the metal bath. On the basis of the obtained results we confirmed that inoculation done by electromagnetic stirring in the range of the continuous casting mould guarantees improved mechanical properties and also decreases the negative influence of casting velocity, thus increasing the structure of AlSi2 continuous ingots.
In this paper, the mathematical model and numerical simulations of the molten steel flow by the submerged entry nozzle and the filling process of the continuous casting mould cavity are presented. In the mathematical model, the temperature fields were obtained by solving the energy equation, while the velocity fields were calculated by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation. These equations contain the turbulent viscosity which is found by solving two additional transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its rate of dissipation. In the numerical simulations, coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena by changes in the thermophysical parameters of alloy depending on the temperature has been taken into consideration. This problem (2D) was solved by using the finite element method. Numerical simulations of filling the continuous casting mould cavity were performed for two variants of liquid metal pouring. The effect of the cases of pouring the continuous casting mould on the velocity fields and the solid phase growth kinetics in the process of filling the continuous casting mould was evaluated as these magnitudes have an influence on the high quality of the continuous cast steel slab.
Investigation of the tensile and fatigue properties of cast magnesium alloys, created by the heated mold continuous casting process (HMC), was conducted. The mechanical properties of the Mg-HMC alloys were overall higher than those for the Mg alloys, made by the conventional gravity casting process (GC), and especially excellent mechanical properties were obtained for the Mg97Y2Zn1 -HMC alloy. This was because of the fine-grained structure composed of the -Mg phases with the interdendritic LPSO phase. Such mechanical properties were similar levels to those for conventional cast aluminum alloy (Al84.7Si10.5Cu2.5Fe1.3Zn1 alloys: ADC12), made by the GC process. Moreover, the tensile properties (UTS and f ) and fatigue properties of the Mg97Y2Zn1 -HMC alloy were about 1.5 times higher than that for the commercial Mg90Al9Zn1 -GC alloy (AZ91). The high correlation rate between tensile properties and fatigue strength (endurance limit: l ) was obtained. With newly proposed etching technique, the residual stress in the Mg97Y2Zn1 alloy could be revealed, and it appeared that the high internal stress was severely accumulated in and around the long-period stacking-order phases (LPSO). This was made during the solidification process due to the different shrinkage rate between α-Mg and LPSO. In this etching technique, microcracks were observed on the sample surface, and amount of micro-cracks (density) could be a parameter to determine the severity of the internal stress, i.e., a large amount to micro-cracks is caused by the high internal stress.
Based on the mould temperature measured by thermocouples during slab continuous casting, a difference of temperature thermograph is developed to detect slab cracks. In order to detect abnormal temperature region caused by longitudinal crack, the suspicious regions are extracted and divided by virtue of computer image processing algorithms, such as threshold segmentation, connected region judgement and boundary tracing. The abnormal regions are then determined and labeled with the eight connected component labeling algorithm. The boundary of abnormal region is also extracted to depict characteristics of longitudinal crack. Based on above researches, longitudinal crack with abnormal temperature region can be detected and is different from other abnormalities. Four samples of temperature drop are picked up to compare with longitudinal crack on the abnormal region formation, length, width, shape, et al. The results show that the abnormal region caused by longitudinal crack has a linear and vertical shape. The height of abnormal region is more than the width obviously. The ratio of height to width is usually larger than that of other temperature drop regions. This method provides a visual and easy way to detect longitudinal crack and other abnormities. Meanwhile it has a positive meaning to the intelligent and visual mould monitoring system of continuous casting.
Determining the boundary conditions of heat transfer in steel manufacturing is a very important issue. The heat transfer effect during contact of two solid bodies occurs in the continuous casting steel process. The temperature fields of solids taking part in heat transfer are described by the Fourier equation. The boundary conditions of heat transfer must be determined to get an accurate solution to the heat conduction equation. The heat flux between the tool and the object processed depends mainly on temperature, pressure and time. It is very difficult and complicated to accomplish direct identification and determination of the boundary conditions in this process. The solution to this problem may be the construction of a process model, performing measurements at a test stand, and using numerical methods. The proposed model must be verified on the basis of parameters which can easily be measured in industrial processes. One of them is temperature, which may be used in inverse methods to determine the heat transfer coefficient. This work presents the methodology for determining the heat flux between two solid bodies staying in contact. It consists of two stages – the experiment and the numerical computation. The problem was solved by using the finite element method (FEM) and a numerical program developed at AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. The findings of the conducted research are relationships describing the value of the heat flux versus the contact time and surface temperature.
Detailed studies of the movement of liquid steel (hydrodynamics) on a real object are practically impossible. The solution to this problem are physical modelling carried out on water models and numerical modelling using appropriate programs. The method of numerical modelling thanks to the considerable computing power of modern computers gives the possibility of solving very complex problems. The paper presents the results of model tests of liquid flow through tundish. The examined object was model of the twonozzle tundish model. The ANSYS Fluent program was used to describe the behavior of liquid in the working area of the tundish model. Numerical simulations were carried out using two numerical methods of turbulence description: RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) – model k-ε and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). The results obtained from CFD calculations were compared with the results obtained using the water model.
The article presents the results of investigations performed on segregation of elements in the billets. The research were performed under standard industrial conditions, during high carbon steel production cycle. Probes (templates with the thickness of 20 mm) were taken from billets with square cross-section of 160 mm. Segregation of elements was determined based on the quantitative analysis of results performed by using spark spectrometry pursuant to PN-H-04045. Changes in concentrations of elements were analysed along two cross-sections. Element contents were performed at points distanced from each other by approx. 10 mm. The segregation of carbon, sulphur and phosphorus was determined for different billets.
The paper evaluates two approaches of numerical modelling of solidification of continuously cast steel billets by finite element method, namely by the numerical modelling under the Steady-State Thermal Conditions, and by the numerical modelling with the Traveling Boundary Conditions. In the paper, the 3D drawing of the geometry, the preparation of computational mesh, the definition of boundary conditions and also the definition of thermo-physical properties of materials in relation to the expected results are discussed. The effect of thermo-physical properties on the computation of central porosity in billet is also mentioned. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of two described approaches are listed and the direction of the next research in the prediction of temperature field in continuously cast billets is also outlined.
Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mold, the heat flow direction is vertically downward. At the upper wall of the mold, the heat flow direction is obliquely downward and deflects toward the mold, and at the lower wall of the mold, the heat flow deflects toward the alloy. There is a complex circular flow in the mold. Liquid alloy flows downward along the wall of the mold and flows upward in the center.
The mathematical and numerical simulation model of the liquid steel flow in a tundish is presented in this paper. The problem was treated as a complex and solved by the finite element method. The single-strand slab tundish is used to continuous casting slabs. The internal work space of the tundish was modified by the following flow control devices. The first device was a striker pad situated in the pouring tundish zone. The second device was a baffle with three holes and the third device was a baffle without hole. The main purpose of using these devices was to cause a quiet liquid mixing as well as give directional metal flow upwards which facilitated inclusion floatation. The interaction of flow control devices on hydrodynamic conditions was received from numerical simulation. As a result of the computations carried out, the liquid steel flow and steel temperature fields were obtained. The influence of the tundish modification on velocity fields in the liquid phase of steel was estimated, because these have an essential influence on high quality of a continuous steel cast slab.
The article presents results of research on the influence of variable parameters of horizontal continuous casting on the structure of AlCu4MgSi (EN AW-2017A) alloy ingots. The special character of the process allows for a continuous change of some of its parameters, namely, of the casting speed and of the rate of the cooling fluid flow thorough the crystallizer. These parameters have a significant impact on the crystallization process of the liquid metal. Depending on the cooling rate, intensity of the convection inside the solidifying alloy, and its chemical composition, there may arise some differences in the structure of the cast. In this study, ingots obtained at different casting speeds have been analyzed. The research methodology, based on light microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), allowed for a thorough examination of the structure of the studied materials. The results were shown that an increase in the ingot casting speed leads to an increase in the average grain surface area.
In this work, the authors proposed a modification of the working space one-strand tundish adapted for slab casting process. Numerical simulations of liquid steel flow in the considered flow reactor were performed. The tundish is equipped with a dam with a multi-hole filter. Two variants of the filter hole arrangement were tested and their effect on the liquid steel flow hydrodynamic structure in the tundish was examined. The computer calculations results were verified by performing experiments on the water model. The result of numerical and physical simulations an RTD (Residence Time Distribution) type F curve was generated, which define the transition zone between the cast steel grades during the sequential casting process. The results of the researches showed that the modification of a dam with a multi-hole filter affects on the formation of the liquid steel flow hydrodynamic structure and the transition zone. Furthermore, examinations of the liquid steel refining ability in the considered tundish were carried out. The influence of the filter holes arrangement on the non-metallic inclusions flotation process to the slag phase and liquid steel filtration processes was checked. Numerical simulations were performed in the Ansys-Fluent computer program.
The article presents the results of research concerning AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process under variable conditions of casting speed and cooling liquid flow through the crystallizer. The mechanical properties and structure of the obtained ingots were correlated with the process parameters. On the basis of the obtained results, it has been shown that depending on the cooling rate and the intensity of convection during solidification, significant differences in the mechanical properties and structure and of the ingots can occur. The research has shown that, as the casting speed and the flow rate of the cooling liquid increase, the hardness of the test samples decreases, while their elongation increases, which is related to the increase of the average grain size. Also, the morphology of the intermetallic phases precipitations lattice, as well as the centerline porosity and dendrite expansion, significantly affect the tensile strength and fracture mechanism of the tested ingots.
The purpose of this paper was testing suitability of the time-series analysis for quality control of the continuous steel casting process in production conditions. The analysis was carried out on industrial data collected in one of Polish steel plants. The production data concerned defective fractions of billets obtained in the process. The procedure of the industrial data preparation is presented. The computations for the time-series analysis were carried out in two ways, both using the authors’ own software. The first one, applied to the real numbers type of the data has a wide range of capabilities, including not only prediction of the future values but also detection of important periodicity in data. In the second approach the data were assumed in a binary (categorical) form, i.e. the every heat(melt) was labeled as ‘Good’ or ‘Defective’. The naïve Bayesian classifier was used for predicting the successive values. The most interesting results of the analysis include good prediction accuracies obtained by both methodologies, the crucial influence of the last preceding point on the predicted result for the real data time-series analysis as well as obtaining an information about the type of misclassification for binary data. The possibility of prediction of the future values can be used by engineering or operational staff with an expert knowledge to decrease fraction of defective products by taking appropriate action when the forthcoming period is identified as critical.