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Abstract

The increasing threat of terrorist attacks in Europe and social demands for governmental actions towards facilitating an information exchange between the national authorities responsible for public security, lead to the spectacular shift towards collection of passengers’ data. Initially, the idea had concerned mainly aviation passengers’ data and was limited to international flights only. But soon it was extended in order to include the Passenger Name Records (PNR) from domestic transport. Recently, we can see tensions to expand the PNR collection scheme to other means of transport including maritime routes. The paper studies the most developed system created in Belgium and assesses its influence on possible all-European solutions. When presenting the main problems connected with profiling the passengers and data sharing between institutions, it discusses a lack of precise privacy impact assessment and the need for necessity and proportionality studies to be carried out both at the level of Member States and in the EU discussion on the implementation of the so called PNR Directive and on the new requirements for the digital registration of passengers and crew sailing on board European passenger ships included in 2017 amendments to Directive 98/41/EC.
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Abstract

The main objective of the study was to evaluate if macrophytes structure and trophic status of dam reservoir Kraśnik on a small lowland river Wyżnica are determined by phosphorous loadings. Studies were conducted seasonally in May, July and October during the years 2008-2009. Samples were taken at four sites: Site 1 - inflow of the Wyżnica River to pre-dam, Site 2 − pre-dam, Site 3 − dam reservoir and Site 4 - outflow of the Wyżnica River from dam reservoir. Physical and chemical parameters (temperature, Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total suspension, chlorophyll-a, TP and P-PO4) were measured in water samples. Together with water parameters there were estimated biomass of phytoplankton and species composition and biomass of emergent, floating-leaved and submerged macrophytes. Concentrations of TP, chlorophyll-a and Secchi disc depth were used to calculate trophic state index of Carlsson for dam reservoir and its pre-dam. Based on mean water current, mean residence time of water in dam reservoir and concentrations of TP and P-PO4 loadings (g m-2) flowing into dam reservoir with the Wyżnica River were calculated. The results showed visible negative effect of phosphorous loadings on both macrophytes composition and trophic state of the reservoir. The marked changes concerned soft vegetation. High P loadings (7.74 g m-2 of TP and 6.03 g m-2 P-PO4) during the spring of 2008 caused the disappearance of characeans meadows. In 2009, the presence of rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), the species typical for eutrophic lakes was noted. This unrooted submerged plant uptakes dissolved orthophosphates directly from the water column. Values of Carlsson index (51.4 ≤ TSI ≤ 68.2) indicate the eutrophic state of dam reservoir Kraśnik. During summer season in dam reservoir there were observed algal blooms (biomass of phytoplankton exceed 10 mg WW dm-3) and low water transparency (Secchi disc depth ranged from 0.4 to 0.65 m). During the two-year studies in dam reservoir Kraśnik a high reduction of P loadings, mostly dissolved orthophosphates was observed. Dependently on season, reduction of P-PO4 loadings ranged from 52% (July 2008) up to 91% (May 2009). The reduction of TP was lower and reached values from 15% (May 2008) to 48% (July 2009).
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Abstract

As of the spring of 2017, the HAŁDY Database is available on the Polish Geological Institute – NRI website. The geodatabase contains information and data on waste mineral raw materials collected on old heaps, industrial waste stock-piles and in post-mining settlers, from the Polish part of the Sudety Mountains. The article presents the types of data and information contained in the geodatabase and the methodology for their collection. As a result of four-year research works, field reconnaissance, archives and geological basic research, 445 objects of former mining and mineral processing were inventoried. There are 403 mine heaps, 16 industrial settlers, 23 stock-piles and 3 external dumps. These are mainly objects after coal mining and metal ores, including post-uranium. The greatest opportunities for the economic use of waste are associated with coal sludge accumulated in settlers of the liquidated Lower Silesian Coal Basin. The material from stone heaps after polymetallic, iron and fluorite ore mining is also easy to use. The issue of the economic use of post-flotation copper ore waste or the recovery of metals (including gold) from dumps of arsenic mining remains open. The limitation here is the efficiency of metal recovery technologies and environmental restrictions. Some of the objects are located in protected areas, which excludes the possibility of waste management. Some stock-piles and heaps should be carefully reclaimed and covered by environmental monitoring, due to their harmful impact on environmental components.
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Abstract

A new method of noise generation based on software implementation of a 7-bit LFSR based on a common polynomial PRBS7 using microcontrollers equipped with internal ADCs and DACs and a microcontroller noise generator structure are proposed in the paper. Two software applications implementing the method: written in ANSI C and based on the LUT technique and written in AVR Assembler are also proposed. In the method the ADC results are used to reseed the LFSR after its each full work cycle, what improves randomness of generated data, which results in a greater similarity of the generated random signal to white noise, what was confirmed by the results of experimental research. The noise generator uses only the internal devices of the microcontroller, hence the proposed solution does not introduce hardware redundancy to the system.
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Abstract

Niniejsza publikacja przedstawia metodykę DEA jako narzędzie do oceny efektywności technologii energetycznych. W pierwszej części pracy ukazano podstawowe narzędzia wykorzystywane do oceny portfela projektów inwestycyjnych w przemyśle energetycznym. W dalszej części scharakteryzowano metody Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), czyli nieparametryczne procedury ustalania efektywności technologicznej badanych obiektów pod względem analizowanych czynników. W części praktycznej – wykorzystując analizę DEA – dokonano przykładowej oceny efektywności trzynastu technologii energetycznych, w tym technologii nadkrytycznego spalania węgla, zgazowania węgla połączonego z turbiną gazową oraz samodzielnego układu turbiny gazowej. Do analizy wykorzystano model nadefektywności nieradialnej z uwzględnieniem podziału na nakłady decyzyjne, niedecyzyjne oraz produkty pożądane i niepożądane. Dodatkowo przeprowadzona została analiza wyników dla przykładowej technologii. Zostały wytłumaczone możliwe sposoby interpretacji wyników końcowych z punktu widzenia obiektów efektywnych, jak i nieefektywnych. W tym drugim przypadku przedstawiono także kalkulację rozwiązania wzorcowego dla danej instalacji wraz z wnioskami co do skali działalności.
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Abstract

The study presents the results of the research into different phosphorus forms in the bottom sediments of anthropogenic limnic ecosystems i.e. the reservoirs of Pławniowice, Rybnik and Goczałkowice (SP). The bottom sediments of dam reservoirs were investigated by chemical extraction procedure for phosphorus forms. The lowest value of the mean AAP form percentage in the Pławniowice bottom sediments reflected the effect of reclamation with the hypolimnetic removal that had been conducted in the reservoir since 2003. The highest percentage of the RDP form (2%) was found in the Goczałkowice bottom sediments. The order of the specific speciation forms in the bottom sediments of the examined reservoirs was: Rybnik: AAP > EP > WDP > RDP; 4,630> 3,740 > 117 > 65 > 3.5 mgP/kg Pławniowice: AAP > EP > WDP > RDP; 916 > 783 > 107 > 15 > 1.4 mgP/kg Goczałkowice: AAP > WDP > EP > RDP; 686 > 628 > 51 > 7 > 0.14 mgP/kg The mutual correlations between the phosphorus speciation forms (AAP : EP : WDP : RDP) were as follows: Rybnik: 1,323 : 1,068 : 33 : 18 : 1; Pławniowice: 654 : 559 : 76 : 11 : 1; Goczałkowice: 4,900 : 4,485 : 364 : 50 : 1. The comparison of the mean concentration values for specific phosphorus forms in the bottom sediments of the three investigated reservoirs demonstrated that the Rybnik sediments had the highest contents of phosphorus. The contents in Pławniowice and Goczałkowice were 5-7 times lower
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Abstract

The problem of poor quality of traffic accident data assembled in national databases has been addressed in European project InDeV. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and moped riders) are especially affected by underreporting of accidents and misreporting of injury severity. Analyses of data from the European CARE database shows differences between countries in accident number trends as well as in fatality and injury rates which are difficult to explain. A survey of InDeV project partners from 7 EU countries helped to identify differences in their countries in accident and injury definitions as well as in reporting and data checking procedures. Measures to improve the quality of accident data are proposed such as including pedestrian falls in accident statistics, precisely defining minimum injury and combining police accident records with hospital data.
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Abstract

We wstępnej części artykułu przedstawiono stan obecnego rozpoznania geologicznego południowej części monokliny przedsudeckiej na tle waryscyjskich struktur tektonicznych środkowej Europy, z uwzględnieniem tematyki surowcowej. Z asadnicza część pracy zawiera analizę dotychczasowych materiałów geofizycznych, grawimetrycznych, magnetycznych i sejsmicznych pod kątem ustalenia i interpretacji związków korelacyjnych wyników badań, w tym między tektoniką obserwowaną na przekrojach sejsmiki płytkiej i głębokiej. Pokazano, że odpowiedni dobór zastosowanych metod stwarza szanse na efektywniejsze rozpoznanie budowy geologicznej podłoża podpermskiego obszaru. Z aproponowano pełniejsze wykorzystanie w interpretacji dynamicznych cech zapisu sejsmicznego na przytoczonym przykładzie wybranych sekcji sejsmicznych w wersji efektywnych współczynników odbicia (EWO ). W e wnioskach przedstawiono propozycję dalszych prac dla kompleksowej reinterpretacji materiałów geofizyczno-geologicznych, w celu rozpoznania utworów głębszego podłoża, z możliwością nawiązania do obszaru Niemiec.
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Abstract

The research objective was to study temporal and spatial relations between specific phosphorus species as well as to examine total phosphorus content in the bottom sediments of an anthropogenic, hypertrophic limnic ecosystem Rybnik Reservoir, functioning under thermal pollution conditions. The chemical extraction procedure for the speciation of bioavailable phosphorus forms was used. It was found that available algae phosphorus was the most dominant phosphorus species in both sediment layers (83%), while the lower share was readily desorbed phosphorus form (0.1%). The phosphorus species concentrations depended on the organic matter concentration. The differences between phosphorus species contents in the upper (5 cm) and lower (15–20 cm) sediment core layers were low. The biologically active sediment layer extended from the sediment surface to at least 20 cm depth of the sediment core. Distributions of the concentrations within the year and at specific sampling points resulted from the variability observed for particular points and transformation intensity. Furthermore in the following study, the reaction rate constant for the increase and decrease in the concentrations of the phosphorus species in sediments was given. It was indicated that the speed of the phosphorus species transformations was affected by the environment temperature. In the heated water discharge zone (water temp. 17–35°C) the concentrations of selected speciation phosphorus forms increased more than in the dam zone (5–25°C). It was also found that the abundance of the bottom sediments with phosphorus species was related to the oblong and transverse asymmetry of reservoir depth.
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Abstract

The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of the Blachownia reservoir (South Poland) was investigated. Spatial variability of PAH concentrations in the longitudinal profi le of the tank was determined. PAHs in samples were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS QP-2010 Plus Shimadzu) using an internal standard. Concentrations ranged from 0.103 μg/L to 2.667 μg/L (Σ16 PAHs) in water samples and from 2.329 mg/kg d.w. to 9.078 mg/kg d.w. (Σ16 PAHs) in sediment samples. A pollution balance was calculated and it was estimated that the infl ow load was 17.70 kg PAHs during the year and the outfl ow load was 9.30 kg PAHs per year. Accumulation of about 50% of the annual PAH loads (8.90 kg) is a threat to the ecological condition of the ecosystem. It was calculated that the PAH loads in bottom sediment were about 80 kg, which limits their economic use. Improvement of the ecological status of this type of reservoir can be achieved by removing the sediment. Analysis of the diagnostic ratios obtained for selected PAHs showed that the potential sources of PAH emissions in small agricultural – forest catchments can be combustion of a coal, wood, plant material (low emission, forest fi res, burning grass, etc.). Transportation is also signifi cant.
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Abstract

The Dez dam was commissioned in 1963 and since sediments accumulated in the reservoir up to an elevation of approximately 15m below the intake of the power tunnel. One of the possible measures to improve operation of the reservoir is by heightening of the existing dam. This paper describes the conducted procedure for static and thermal calibration of this 203m dam in Iran based on micro geodesies measurements. Also the nonlinear response of existing dam is investigated under maximum credible earthquake ground motions considering joint behavior and mass concrete cracking and safety of dam is evaluated for possible heightening. For thermal calibration of provided numerical model, transient thermal analysis was conducted and results were compared with thermometers records installed in central block. In addition, for static calibration; thermal distribution within dam body, dam self weight, hydrostatic pressure and silt load applied on the 3D fi nite element model of dam-reservoir-foundation were considered. Results show that the distribution of stresses will be critical within dam for heightening case under seismic loads in MCL.
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Abstract

This paper focuses on the development of critical methods and the growth of the erudite school in 18th-century Denmark-Norway. It shows how Hans Gram, Andreas Hojer and Jacob Langebek contributed to modernizing the study of history, turning it into a branch of science
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Abstract

The aim of the study was evaluation of ecological potential of reservoirs, once complexes of fish ponds, which are currently covered by international form of nature conservation. An effort to identify the source of reservoirs’ water supply in biogenic substances has also been undertaken. Studied dam reservoirs, included in Natura 2000 site: a Special Protection Area (SPA) called ‘Uroczysko Mosty--Zahajki’ (PLH060014). The ‘Uroczysko Mosty-Zahajki’ consists of two neighboring, not very deep reservoirs: Mosty (390 ha) and Zahajki (240 ha), located in the Hanna river’s catchment area, a tributary of the Bug and Zielawa rivers entering the Krzna river. Studied reservoirs represented moderate (reservoir Zahajki) and bad (Mosty reservoir) ecological potential. The buffer zones of Mosty and Zahajki reser-voirs were dominated by large forest complexes. The studied reservoirs are supplied with rivers and ditches contaminated with nutrients. Mosty and Zahajki reservoirs, in spite of moderate and poor ecologi-cal potential, increase the water resources of the area, have a positive impact on the circulation of water and increase the landscape and recreational values of region.
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Abstract

Sediments of two dam reservoirs in SE Poland, Zalew Zemborzycki (ZZ) and Brody Iłżeckie (BI) were studied. The sediments from both reservoirs were sampled in the transects perpendicular to the shoreline, at the river inflow and the frontal dam. The total concentration of Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Ni was determined by ICP-EAS method after the sample digestion in the mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HClO4 acids. The statistical analyses: value intervals, mean values, variation coefficient, the median and the skewed distribution were performed. To estimate differences between the means for transects, Tukey’s test was applied with least significant difference (LSD) determination. The maps of the metal spatial distribution were drawn and sediment quality according to the geochemical and ecotoxicological criteria evaluated. Differences between the reservoirs in terms of heavy metals concentration in bottom sediments, and regularities in their spatial distribution were found. In the ZZ sediments the concentration was at the level of geochemical background (Zn, Cr), slightly (Cd, Cu, Ni) or moderately (Pb) contaminated sediments. The metal concentration in the sediments of the BI was up to eight times higher as compared to the ZZ. Moreover, sediments from the BI reservoir showed a greater variability of metal concentration than those from ZZ, which resulted from the dredging operation performed in the part of the reservoir. Metal concentration in sediments of the dredged part was ca. 2–5 times lower than in the undredged one, which indicates that after the dredging operation, accumulation of these metals was slight. The concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd from the undredged part of BI were at the level of contaminated sediments and exceeded the probable effects level (PEL). In the ZZ, the greatest accumulation of metals occurred in the upper part of the reservoir and at the frontal dam, and the lowest in the middle part of the reservoir. In BI, the lower outflow of water in this reservoir caused a lower metal concentration in the sediments at the frontal dam, as compared with the other sediments in the undredged part of the reservoir. The results indicate that in small and shallow reservoirs, areas of accumulation of heavy metals depend on such factors as a parent river current, reservoir depth, water waving, reservoir shape (narrowing, coves/bays), and type of water outflow.
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Abstract

The goal of this paper is to discuss changes implemented in Danish early childhood education influenced by neoliberal ideology, and views concerning the new requirements for teachers (pedagogues) at private and self-owned kindergartens. The paper describes the historical tradition of Danish kindergartens based on children’s free play and democracy, allowing children to develop social skills and cognition through exploration and discovery, and giving practitioners a great deal of autonomy. The new trend in Danish early childhood education is towards detailed planning of work and accountability-based-assessment, which contradicts the traditional philosophy. It pushes teachers to create programs that develop children’s readiness for school and to implement teaching methods based on educational standards mandated by the government. The results of this research project, based on interviews conducted with teachers and educational experts, demonstrates the educators’ criticism of this new approach and their attempts to save democracy as a central value in education
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Abstract

W obliczu rewolucji technologii informatycznych badacze nauk społecznych mają przed sobą nie lada wyzwanie. Oto bowiem wraz ze zwiększającą się popularnością Internetu pojawiły się ogromne ilości danych zawierających opinie, poglądy i zainteresowania jego użytkowników. Chociaż analiza tych danych stawia przed badaczami poważne problemy metodologiczne, za ich użyciem przemawia fascynujący materiał powstający bez ingerencji badaczy. Dużą część tego materiału stanowią dane z najpopularniejszej na świecie wyszukiwarki Google. Co minutę jej użytkownicy ze wszystkich miejsc na świecie zadają ponad 3 miliony zapytań, które są następnie klasyfikowane i udostępniane za pomocą aktualizowanych na bieżąco narzędzi. W artykule tym omówione są próby adaptacji tych danych do potrzeb nauk społecznych, a także dotychczasowe badania na ten temat. Omówione są także praktyczne aspekty pracy z narzędziami Google’a: Google Trends oraz Google Keyword Planner. Artykuł jest przeznaczony przede wszystkim dla badaczy nauk społecznych zainteresowanych internetowymi źródłami Big Data oraz wykorzystaniem tych danych w pracy naukowej.
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Abstract

The Multi-Tone (MT) signal with uniform amplitudes can be used for DAC testing. This paper shows an easier way to generate a MT signal using several impulse signals. The article also analyzes qualities of methods for testing the dynamic parameters of Digital to Analog Converters using an impulse signal. The MT, Damped Sine Wave (DSW) and Sinx/x (SINC) signals will be used as the source for these tests. The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) and Signal to noise and distortion (SINAD) are evaluated in the frequency domain and they are modified using the Crest Factor (CF) correction and compared with the standard results of the Sine Wave FFT test. The first advantage of the test using an impulse signal is that you need fewer input parameters to create the band signal for testing the DAC. The second one is to reduce the testing time using a band signal in comparison with multiple tests using a single sine wave.
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Abstract

Decision-making processes, including the ones related to ill-structured problems, are of considerable significance in the area of construction projects. Computer-aided inference under such conditions requires the employment of specific methods and tools (non-algorithmic ones), the best recognized and successfully used in practice represented by expert systems. The knowledge indispensable for such systems to perform inference is most frequently acquired directly from experts (through a dialogue: a domain expert - a knowledge engineer) and from various source documents. Little is known, however, about the possibility of automating knowledge acquisition in this area and as a result, in practice it is scarcely ever used. lt has to be noted that in numerous areas of management more and more attention is paid to the issue of acquiring knowledge from available data. What is known and successfully employed in the practice of aiding the decision-making is the different methods and tools. The paper attempts to select methods for knowledge discovery in data and presents possible ways of representing the acquired knowledge as well as sample tools (including programming ones), allowing for the use of this knowledge in the area under consideration.
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Abstract

The parameters of sigma-delta audio DAC depend mainly on digital sigma-delta modulator's features, especially on its noise transfer function (NTF). Many methods of design and optimization of the loop filter's coefficients in sigma-delta modulators have been proposed so far. These methods enable the designer to get suitable noise transfer functions for specific application. This paper reviews NTF design and optimization methods which are particularly useful in audio applications.
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Abstract

The development of digital microphones and loudspeakers adds new and interesting possibilities of their applications in different fields, extended from industrial, medical to consumer audio markets. One of the rapidly growing field of applications is mobile multimedia, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, laptop and desktop PCs, etc. The advances have also been made in digital audio, particularly in direct digital transduction, so it is now possible to create the all-digital audio recording and reproduction chains potentially having several advantages over existing analog systems.
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