We analyzed DNA damage, mitotic activity and polyploidization in Crepis capillaris callus cells during short- and long-term in vitro culture, and the influence of plant growth regulators on these processes. Changes in the concentration of growth regulators altered the stability of callus. The level of DNA damage was highly dependent on the growth regulator composition of the medium. Cytokinin at high concentrations damaged DNA in the absence of auxin. Short- and long-term callus differed in sensitivity to growth regulators. Mitotic activity changed when callus was transferred to medium with modified growth regulators. Callus cell nuclear DNA content increased with age and in response to plant growth regulators. Hormones played a role in the genetic changes in C. capillaris callus culture. We demonstrated the usefulness of C. capillaris callus culture as a model for analyzing the effect of culture conditions, including plant growth regulators, on genetic stability.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in numerous industries and areas of daily life, mainly as antimicrobial agents. The particles size is very important, but still not suffi ciently recognized parameter infl uencing the toxicity of nanosilver. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs with different particle size (~ 10, 40 and 100 nm). The study was conducted on both reproductive and pulmonary cells (CHO-9, 15P-1 and RAW264.7). We tested the effects of AgNPs on cell viability, cell membrane integrity, mitochondrial metabolic activity, lipid peroxidation, total oxidative and antioxidative status of cells and oxidative DNA damage. All kinds of AgNPs showed strong cytotoxic activity at low concentrations (2÷13 μg/ml), and caused an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at concentrations lower than cytotoxic ones. The ROS being formed in the cells induced oxidative damage of DNA in alkaline comet assay. The most toxic was AgNPs<10 nm. The results indicate that the silver nanoparticles, especially less than 10 nm, may be harmful to the organisms. Therefore, risk should be considered when using nanosilver preparations and provide appropriate protective measures when they are applied.