In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error), and exceeds FE (frequency error) and RFE (rate of frequency error) limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1) by the window method; 2) as flat-top windows; or as 3) optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.
In this paper a concept of finite impulse response (FIR) narrow band-stop (notch) filter with non-zero initial conditions, based on infinite impulse response (IIR) prototype filter, is proposed. The filter described in this paper is used to suppress power line noise from ECG signals. In order to reduce the transient response of the proposed FIR notch filter, optimal initial conditions for the filter have been determined. The algorithm for finding the length of the initial conditions vector is presented. The proposed values of the length of initial conditions vector, for several ECG signals and interfering frequencies, are calculated. The proposed filters are tested using various ECG signals. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed FIR filters outperform traditional FIR filters with initial conditions set to zero.
Estimating the fundamental frequency and harmonic parameters is basic for signal modelling in a power supply system. Differing from the existing parameter estimation algorithms either in power quality monitoring or in harmonic compensation, the proposed algorithm enables a simultaneous estimation of the fundamental frequency, the amplitudes and phases of harmonic waves. A pure sinusoid is obtained from an input multiharmonic input signal by finite-impulse-response (FIR) comb filters. Proposed algorithm is based on the use of partial derivatives of the processed signal and the weighted estimation procedure to estimate the fundamental frequency, the amplitude and the phase of a multi-sinusoidal signal. The proposed algorithm can be applied in signal reconstruction, spectral estimation, system identification, as well as in other important signal processing problems. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.