Consumption of energy is one of the important indicators in developing countries, but a lot of companies from the energy sector have to cope with three key challenges, namely how to reduce their impact on the environment, how to ensure the low cost of the energy production and how to improve the system overall performance? For Polish energy market, the number of challenges is greater. The growing demand for electricity and contemporary development of nuclear power technology allow today’s design, implement new solutions for high energy conversion system low unit cost for energy and fuel production. In the present paper, numerical analysis of modular high-temperature nuclear reactor coupled with the steam cycle for electricity production has been presented. The analysed system consists of three independent cycles. The first two are high-temperature nuclear reactor cycles which are equipped with two high-temperature nuclear reactors, heat exchangers, blowers, steam generators. The third cycle is a Rankine cycle which is equipped with up to four steam turbines, that operate in the heat recovery system. The analysis of such a system shows that is possible to achieve significantly greater efficiency than offered by traditional nuclear reactor technology.
To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed. Test results show that the ultrasonic wave velocity and mass loss of concrete specimen begin to sharply drop after high temperatures of 600°C and 400°C, respectively, at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of specimen increase with increasing strain rate after the same temperature, but it is difficult to obtain an evident change law of peak strain with increasing strain rate. The compressive strength of concrete specimen decreases first, and then increases, but decreases again in the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. It can be observed that the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of specimen increases with increasing temperature. In addition, the peak strain also increases but the elastic modulus decreases substantially with increasing temperature under the same strain rate.
The article presents the results of research concerning to AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process. The presented research was focused on the precise determination of phase composition of the precipitates formed during the solidification of ingots and the analysis of their thermal stability. In order to assess the morphology of precipitates in the AlCu4MgSi alloy, data obtained by using a computer simulation of thermodynamic phenomena were compiled with results obtained using advanced research techniques, i.e. High-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), SEM-EDS, Thermal and derivative analysis (TDA) and Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD OES). SEM observations and analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas showed that the precipitates are mainly intermetallic θ-Al2Cu and β-Mg2Si phases, and also presence of Al19Fe4MnSi2 intermetallic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Based on the prepared Thermo-Calc simulation data, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted.
In this study, high performance magnesium-yttria nanocomposite’s room temperature, strength and ductility were significantly enhanced by the dispersion of nano-sized nickel particles using powder blending and a microwave sintering process. The strengthening effect of the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles was consistent up to 100°C and then it gradually diminished with further increases in the test temperature. The ductility of the magnesium-yttria nanocomposite remained unaffected by the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles up to 100°C. Impressively, it was enhanced at 150°C and above, leading to the possibility of the near net shape fabrication of the nanocomposite at a significantly low temperature.
Recently, attempts have been made to use porous metal as catalysts in a reactor for the hydrogen manufacturing process using steam methane reforming (SMR). This study manufactured Ni-Cr-Al based powder porous metal, stacked cubic form porous blocks, and investigated high temperature random stack creep property. To establish an environment similar to the actual situation, a random stack jig with a 1-inch diameter and height of 75 mm was used. The porous metal used for this study had an average pore size of ~1161 μm by rolling direction. The relative density of the powder porous metal was measured as 6.72%. A compression test performed at 1073K identified that the powder porous metal had high temperature (800°C) compressive strength of 0.76 MPa. A 800°C random stack creep test at 0.38 MPa measured a steady-state creep rate of 8.58×10–10 s–1, confirming outstanding high temperature creep properties. Compared to a single cubic powder porous metal with an identical stress ratio, this is a 1,000-times lower (better) steady-state creep rate. Based on the findings above, the reason of difference in creep properties between a single creep test and random stack creep test was discussed.
The paper discusses the possibility of improving resistance of heat exchangers made of gray cast iron with flake graphite to hightemperature corrosion by providing them with metallic coatings. A metallic coating containing 76.9% Ni, 19.8% Cr, 1.7% Si, 0.9% Fe, and 0.9% Mn was applied by means of the plasma spraying method and subjected to cyclically variable thermal loads in the atmosphere of solid fuels combustion products (oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and sodium). In a 30-day thermal load test held at temperature 500°C it has been found that thickness of the metallic coating decreased from the initial (240 ± 6) μm to (231 ± 6) μm. The depth to which sulfur, chlorine, and sodium penetrated the coating was about 30 μm. Increased oxygen content occurred along the whole coating depth. In the coating area adjacent to the substrate surface, the content was twice as high compared to this observed in the initial coating material. Although presence of oxygen was found within the whole depth of the coating, i.e. (231 ± 6) μm, no signs of susceptibility of the sprayed metallic layer to separation from substrate of gray cast iron with flake graphite were found.
This paper presents a numerical modeling method for AC losses in highly dynamic linear actuators with high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. The AC losses and generated force of two actuators, with different placement of the cryostats, are compared. In these actuators, the main loss component in the superconducting tapes are hysteresis losses, which result from both the non-sinusoidal phase currents and movement of the permanent magnets. The modeling method, based on the H-formulation of the magnetic fields, takes into account permanent magnetization and movement of permanent magnets. Calculated losses as function of the peak phase current of both superconducting actuators are compared to those of an equivalent non-cryogenic actuator.
Potential sources of rare earth elements are sought after in the world by many researchers. Coal ash obtained at high temperatures (HTA ) is considered among these sources. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the suitability of the high temperature ash (HTA ) formed during the combustion of bituminous coal from the Ruda beds of the Pniówek coal mine as an potential resource of REY . The 13 samples of HTA obtained from the combustion of metabituminous (B) coal were analyzed. The analyses showed that the examined HTA samples varied in their chemical composition. In accordance with the chemical classification of HTA , the analyzed ash samples were classified as belonging to the following types: sialic, sialocalcic, sialoferricalcic, calsialic, fericalsialic, ferisialic. The research has shown that the rare earth elements content (REY ) in examined HTA samples are characterized by high variability. The average REY content in the analyzed ashes was 2.5 times higher than the world average (404 ppm). Among rare earth elements, the light elements (LREY ) were the most abundant. Heavy elements (HREY ) had the lowest share. A comparison of the content of the individual rare earth elements in HTA samples and in UCC showed that it was almost 20 times higher than in UCC. The distribution patterns of REY plotted for all samples within their entire range were positioned above the reference level and these curves were of the M-H or M-L type. The data presented indicate, that the analyzed ash samples should be regarded as promising REY raw materials. Considering the fact that in 7 out of 13 analyzed ash samples the REY content was higher than 800 ppm, REY recovery from these ashes may prove to be economic.
Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle), which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle). The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.
Fe-40wt% TiB2 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical activation and spark-plasma sintering of a powder mixture of iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH2). The powder mixture of (FeB, TiH2) was prepared by high-energy ball milling in a planetary ball mill at 700 rpm for 3 h followed by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) at various conditions. Analysis of the change in relative sintered density and densification rate during sintering showed that a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction occurs to form TiB2 from FeB and Ti. A sintered body with relative density higher than 98% was obtained after sintering at 1150°C for 5 and 15 min. The microstructural observation of sintered compacts with the use of FE-SEM and TEM revealed that ultrafine particulates with approximately 5 nm were evenly distributed in an Fe-matrix. A hardness value of 83 HRC was obtained, which is equivalent to that of conventional WC-20 Co systems.
AISI 316L/TiB2/2p composites were manufactured by HP-HT using different pressures (5 and 7 GPa) and temperatures (900-1300°C), with constant reinforcing particle content 2 vol%. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated on the basis of hardness (HV0.3) and compression tests (20°C, 10−5 s−1). The results showed that the role of sintering pressure increased with increasing process temperature. At temperatures of 900°C and pressures of 5 and 7 GPa the difference in measured values of compressive strength was 1-2%, while at 1300°C they reached 20%. At constant pressure of 5 GPa, a change in hardness and compressive strength of 40% were obtained with a temperature change of 900 to 1300°C. Changes in mechanical properties in the composite occurred without substantial changes in density, microstructure, reinforcement phase distribution, and phase composition in the matrix.
In order to improve the efficiency of power generation system and reduce CO2 emissions power plants work at high temperature and pressure. Under such conditions modified steel 9Cr, which fulfils the requirements concerning creep resistance, is used. However, Cr2O3 formed on the steel does not protect the construction material in the atmosphere which contains CO2 and SO2. The aim of the experiment was to study the behaviour of P91 steel in CO2 atmosphere with the addition of 1% and 5 vol.% of SO2 at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900°C). It was concluded that the corrosion rate of P91 steel is increasing with a rise in temperature. Scales formed in CO2 atmosphere at 900°C contain a mixture of iron oxides in the outer layer and chromium-iron spinel in the inner layer. The FeS and Ni were found in the inner zone of scales formed in SO2 atmosphere.
This paper presents the results of research on high performance concretes (HPC) modified by theaddition of polypropylene fibres (PP fibres). The scope of the research was the measurement of theresidual transport properties of heated and recooled concretes: gas permeability and surface waterabsorption. Seven types of concrete modified with fibrillated PP fibres were tested. Three lengths: 6,12 and 19 mm and three amounts of fibres: 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kg/m3 were used. The research programmewas designed to determine which length of fibres, used in which minimum amount, will, after thefibres melt, permit the development of a connected network and pathway for gases and liquids.
This study investigated the microstructure and high temperature oxidation properties of Fe-25Cr-20Ni-1.5Nb, HK30 alloy manufactured by metal injection molding (MIM) process. The powder used in MIM had a bi-modal size distribution of 0.11 and 9.19 μm and had a spherical shape. The initial powder consisted of γ-Fe and Cr23C6 phases. Microstructural observation of the manufactured (MIMed) HK30 alloy confirmed Cr23C6 along the grain boundary of the γ-Fe matrix, and NbC was distributed evenly on the grain boundary and in the grain. After a 24-hour high temperature oxidation test at air atmospheres of 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, the oxidation weight measured 0.72, 1.11 and 2.29 mg/cm,2 respectively. Cross-sectional observation of the oxidation specimen identified a dense Cr2O3 oxide layer at 1000°C condition, and the thickness of the oxide layer increased as the oxidation temperature increased. At 1100°C and 1200°C oxidation temperatures, Fe-rich oxide was also formed on the dense Cr2O3 oxide layer. Based on the above findings, this study identified the high-temperature oxidation mechanism of HK30 alloy manufactured by MIM.
A high-temperature piezo-resistive nano-crystalline diamond strain sensor and wireless powering are presented in this paper. High-temperature sensors and electronic devices are required in harsh environments where the use of conventional electronic circuits is impractical or impossible. Piezo-resistive sensors based on nano-crystalline diamond layers were successfully designed, fabricated and tested. The fabricated sensors are able to operate at temperatures of up to 250°C with a reasonable sensitivity. The basic principles and applicability of wireless powering using the near magnetic field are also presented. The system is intended mainly for circuits demanding energy consumption, such as resistive sensors or devices that consist of discrete components. The paper is focused on the practical aspect and implementation of the wireless powering. The presented equations enable to fit the frequency to the optimal range and to maximize the energy and voltage transfer with respect to the coils’ properties, expected load and given geometry. The developed system uses both high-temperature active devices based on CMOS-SOI technology and strain sensors which can be wirelessly powered from a distance of up to several centimetres with the power consumption reaching hundreds of milliwatts at 200°C. The theoretical calculations are based on the general circuit theory and were performed in the software package Maple. The results were simulated in the Spice software and verified on a real sample of the measuring probe.
Indirectly or externally fired gas turbines (IFGT or EFGT) are interesting technologies under development for small and medium scale combined heat and power (CHP) supplies in combination with micro gas turbine technologies. The emphasis is primarily on the utilization of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and the possibility of burning biomass even "dirty" fuel by employing a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) to avoid the combustion gases passing through the turbine. In this paper, finite time thermodynamics is employed in the performance analysis of a class of irreversible closed IFGT cycles coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. Based on the derived analytical formulae for the dimensionless power output and efficiency, the efficiency optimization is performed in two aspects. The first is to search the optimum heat conductance distribution corresponding to the efficiency optimization among the hot- and cold-side of the heat reservoirs and the high temperature heat exchangers for a fixed total heat exchanger inventory. The second is to search the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching corresponding to the maximum efficiency between the working fluid and the high-temperature heat reservoir for a fixed ratio of the thermal capacitance rates of the two heat reservoirs. The influences of some design parameters on the optimum heat conductance distribution, the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching and the maximum power output, which include the inlet temperature ratio of the two heat reservoirs, the efficiencies of the compressor and the gas turbine, and the total pressure recovery coefficient, are provided by numerical examples. The power plant configuration under optimized operation condition leads to a smaller size, including the compressor, turbine, two heat reservoirs and the HTHE.
Nickel-based alloys are widely used in industries such as the aircraft industry, chemicals, power generation, and others. Their stable mechanical properties in combination with high resistance to aggressive environments at high temperatures make these materials suitable for the production of components of devices and machines intended for operation in extremely difficult conditions, e.g. in aircraft engines. This paper presents the results of thermal and mechanical tests performed on precision castings made of the Inconel 713C alloy and intended for use in the production of low pressure turbine blades. The tests enabled the determination of the nil strength temperature (NST), the nil ductility temperature (NDT), and the ductility recovery temperature (DRT) of the material tested. Based on the values obtained, the high temperature brittleness range (HTBR) and the hot cracking resistance index were determined. Metallographic examinations were conducted in order to describe the cracking mechanisms. It was found that the main cracking mechanism was the partial melting of grains and subsequently the rupture of a thin liquid film along crystal boundaries as a result of deformation during crystallisation. Another cracking mechanism identified was the DDC (Ductility Dip Cracking) mechanism. The results obtained provide a basis for improving precision casting processes for aircraft components and constitute guidelines for designers, engineers, and casting technologists.
Constantly developing production process and high requirements concerning the quality of glass determine the need for continuous improvement of tools and equipment needed for its production. Such tools like forms, most often made of cast-iron, are characterized by thick wall thickness compared to their overall dimensions and work in difficult conditions such as heating of the surface layer, increase of thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradient on the wall thickness, occurrence of thermal shock effect, resulting from cyclically changing temperatures during filling and emptying of the mould. There is no best and universal method for assessing how samples subjected to cyclic temperature changes behave. Research on thermal fatigue is a difficult issue, mainly due to the instability of this parameter, which depends on many factors, such as the temperature gradient in which the element works, the type of treatment and the chemical composition of the material. Important parameters for these materials are at high temperature resistance to thermal shock and thermal fatigue what will be presented in this paper.