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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process that joins similar or dissimilar materials into application-oriented objects in a wide range of sizes and shapes. This article presents an overview of two additive manufacturing techniques; namely Laser metal deposition (LMD) and Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). In LMD, metallic powders are contained in one or more chambers, which are then channelled through deposition nozzles. A laser heats the particles to produce metallic beads, which are deposited in layers with the aid of an in-built motion system. In WAAM, a high voltage electric arc functions as the heat source, which helps with ensuring deposition of materials, while materials in wire form are used for the feedstock. This article highlights some of the strengths and challenges that are offered by both processes. As part of the authors’ original research work, ­Ti-6Al-4V, Stainless steel 316L and Al-12Si were prepared using LMD, while the WAAM technique was used to prepare two Al alloys; Al-5356 and CuAl8Ni2. Microstructural analysis will focus on similarity and differences in grains that are formed in layers. This article will also offer an overall comparison on how these samples compare with other materials that have been prepared using LMD and WAAM.
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Abstract

Fe-Cr-B alloy is a material with precipitation of boride inside Fe matrix, and it features outstanding hardness and wear resistance properties. However, Fe-Cr-B alloy is a difficult material to process, making it difficult to use as a bulk type structure material which requires delicate shapes. This study attempted to manufacture Fe-Cr-B alloy using a 3D printing process, laser metal deposition. This study also investigated the microstructure, hardness and compression properties of the manufactured alloy. Phase analysis results is confirmed that α-Fe phase as matrix and (Cr, Fe)2B phase as reinforcement phase. In the case of (Cr, Fe)2B phase, differences were observed according to the sample location. While long, coarse, unidirectional needle-type boride phases (~11 μm thickness) were observed in the center area of the sample, relatively finer boride phases (~6 μm thickness) in random directions were observed in other areas. At room temperature compression test results confirmed that the sample had a compression strength is approximately 2.1 GPa, proving that the sample is a material with extremely high strength. Observation of the compression fracture surface identified intergranular fractures in areas with needle-type boride, and transgranular fractures in areas with random borides. Based on this results, this study also reviewed the deformation behavior of LMD Fe-Cr-B alloy in relation to its microstructures.
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