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Abstract

The paper presents Lusatian culture bronze artefacts recovered in the Orava region in northern Slovakia, which allows for tracing connections with the territory of present-day Poland in the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The object is to discuss the provenance of the Lusatian bronze artefacts and analyse possible intercultural contacts with the north, across the Carpathians.
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Abstract

This preliminary study characterizes the bronze metalworking on a defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture in former Kamieniec (Chełmno land, Poland) as it is reflected through casting workshop recovered during recent excavations. Among ready products, the ones giving evidence of local metallurgy (e.g. casting moulds and main runners) were also identified. With the shrinkage cavities and dendritic microstructures revealed, the artifacts prove the implementing a casting method by the Lusatian culture metalworkers. The elemental composition indicates application of two main types of bronzes: Cu-Sn and Cu-Pb. Aside these main alloying additions, some natural impurities such as silver, arsenic, antimony and nickel were found which may be attributed to the origin of the ore and casting technology. The collection from Kamieniec was described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive Xray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint either local or non-local profile of the alloys, the ED-XRF data-set was statistically evaluated using a factor analysis (FA).
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Abstract

This study characterizes the bronze jewellery recovered from the Lusatian culture urn-field in Mała Kępa (Chełmno land, Poland). Among many common ornaments (e.g. necklaces, rings, pins) the ones giving evidence of a steppe-styled inspiration (nail earrings) were also identified. With the dendritic microstructures revealed, the nail earrings prove the implementing of a lost-wax casting method, whereas some of the castings were further subjected to metalworking. The elemental composition indicates the application of two main types of bronze alloys: Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb. It has been established that the Lusatian metalworkers were familiar with re-melting the scrap bronze and made themselves capable of roasting the sulphide-rich ores. The collection from Mała Kępa has been described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X - ray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint an alloy profile of the castings with a special emphasis on the nail earrings, the data-set (ED-XRF, EDS) was statistically evaluated using multidimensional analyses (FA, DA).
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