The results presented in this article are part of the research on fatigue life of various foundry alloys carried out in recent years in the Lukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Precision Mechanics and AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering. The article discusses the test results obtained for the EN-GJS-600-3 cast iron in an original modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF), which seems to be a beneficial research tool allowing its users to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials with microstructural heterogeneities under both static and dynamic loads. For a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical behaviour with a focus on fatigue life of alloys, an original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine was used. The results of metallographic examinations carried out by light microscopy were also presented. From the analysis of the results of the conducted mechanical tests and structural examinations it follows that the MLCF method is fully applicable in a quick and economically justified assessment of the quality of ductile iron after normalizing treatment.
For the purpose of making of a solid body of an electric guitar the acoustic- and mechanical properties of walnut- (Juglans regia L.) and ash wood (Fraxinus excelsior L.) were researched. The acoustic properties were determined in a flexural vibration response of laboratory conditioned wood elements of 430 × 186 × 42.8 mm used for making of a solid body of an electric guitar. The velocity of shearand compression ultrasonic waves was additionally determined in parallel small oriented samples of 80 × 40 × 40 mm. The research confirmed better mechanical properties of ash wood, that is, the larger modulus of elasticity and shear modules in all anatomical directions and planes. The acoustic quality of ash wood was better only in the basic vibration mode. Walnut was, on the other hand, lighter and more homogenous and had lower acoustic- and mechanical anisotropy. Additionally, reduced damping of walnut at higher vibration modes is assumed to have a positive impact on the vibration response of future modelled and built solid bodies of electric guitars. When choosing walnut wood, better energy transfer is expected at a similar string playing frequency and a structure resonance of the electric guitar.
Final quality of casts produced in a die casting process represents a correlation of setting of technological parameters of die casting cycle, properties of alloy, construction of a die and structure of gating and of bleeding systems. Suitable structure of a gating system with an appertaining bleeding system of the die can significantly influence mechanical and structural properties of a cast. The submitted paper focuses on influence of position of outfall of an gate into the cast on its selected quality properties. Layout of the test casts in the die was designed to provide filling of a shaping cavity by the melt with diverse character of flowing. Setting of input technological parameters during experiment remained on a constant level. The only variable was the position of the gate. Homogeneity represented by porosity f and ultimate strength Rm were selected to be the assessed representative quality properties of the cast. The tests of the influence upon monitored parameters were realized in two stages. The test gating system was primarily subjected to numerical tests with the utilization of a simulation program NovaFlow&Solid. Consequently, the results were verified by the experimental tests carried out with the physical casts produced during operation. It was proved that diverse placement of the gate in relation to the cast influences the mode of the melt flowing through the shaping cavity which is reflected in the porosity of the casts. The experimental test proved correlation of porosity f of the cast with its ultimate strength Rm. At the end of the paper, the interaction dependencies between the gate position, the mode of filling the die cavity, porosity f and ultimate strength Rm.
Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
This study was carried out to evaluate the aspect of microstructure and mechanical property development on additive manufactured pure Ti at elevated heat-input. For this work, pure Ti powder (commercial purity, grade 1) was selected, and selective laser melting was conducted from 0.5 to 1.4 J/mm. As a result, increase in heat-input led to the significant grain growth form 4 μm to 12 μm, accompanying with the change of grain shape, correctly widmanstätten structured grains. In addition, Vickers microhardness was notably increased from 228 Hv to 358 Hv in accordance with elevated heat-input, which was attributed to the increased concentration of oxygen and nitrogen mainly occurred during selected laser melting process.
Investigation of the tensile and fatigue properties of cast magnesium alloys, created by the heated mold continuous casting process (HMC), was conducted. The mechanical properties of the Mg-HMC alloys were overall higher than those for the Mg alloys, made by the conventional gravity casting process (GC), and especially excellent mechanical properties were obtained for the Mg97Y2Zn1 -HMC alloy. This was because of the fine-grained structure composed of the -Mg phases with the interdendritic LPSO phase. Such mechanical properties were similar levels to those for conventional cast aluminum alloy (Al84.7Si10.5Cu2.5Fe1.3Zn1 alloys: ADC12), made by the GC process. Moreover, the tensile properties (UTS and f ) and fatigue properties of the Mg97Y2Zn1 -HMC alloy were about 1.5 times higher than that for the commercial Mg90Al9Zn1 -GC alloy (AZ91). The high correlation rate between tensile properties and fatigue strength (endurance limit: l ) was obtained. With newly proposed etching technique, the residual stress in the Mg97Y2Zn1 alloy could be revealed, and it appeared that the high internal stress was severely accumulated in and around the long-period stacking-order phases (LPSO). This was made during the solidification process due to the different shrinkage rate between α-Mg and LPSO. In this etching technique, microcracks were observed on the sample surface, and amount of micro-cracks (density) could be a parameter to determine the severity of the internal stress, i.e., a large amount to micro-cracks is caused by the high internal stress.
The effect of CaSiAl modification (43-49% Ca, 43-48% Si, 2% Al) on the non-metallic inclusions and mechanical properties of cast lowcarbon steel is discussed. Tests were carried out on the cast steel with 0.2% C and micro-additives of V and Nb, used mainly for heavy steel castings (e.g. slag ladles). The modifier in an amount of 1.5 and 3 kg / Mg was introduced to the liquid steel before tapping the metal into a ladle. Test ingots of Y type and a weight of 10 kg were cast and then subjected to a normalizing heat treatment. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the non-metallic inclusions present in as-cast samples was carried out. Additionally, tests of mechanical strength and impact strength were performed on cast steel with and without the different content of modifier. It was found that increasing the modifier addition affected impact strength but had no significant effect on tensile strength and yield strength. The material with high impact strength had the smallest area fraction of non-metallic inclusions in the microstructure (0.20%). The introduction of modifiers changed the morphology of non-metallic inclusions from dendritic to regular and nodular shapes.