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Abstrakt

To investigate the impact of various Al-Ti-B grain-refiners on solidification and grain-refining performance, a wrought aluminium alloy AA6182 was used. Three different grain-refiners from different manufacturers were used to establish the efficiency, i.e. contact time before casting, on the primary solidification and grain formation size. The primary solidification of α-Al grains at inoculation was observed by using thermal analysis (TA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used in order to analyze the quality of various grain-refiners. The size of the primary grains was analyzed using optical microscopy (OM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to estimate the size and distribution of Al3Ti and TiB2 particles in various grain-refiners and to establish the best efficiency of the investigated grain-refiners. Within 1-4 min of inoculation the smallest fine equiaxed grains were achieved when either one of the investigated grain-refiners was added. It was established, that grain-refiner A contains higher content of impurities which do not melt in the experimental temperature range made by DSC method. The most pure grain-refiner turned out to be grain-refiner B, in which the most optimal number of TiB2 particles and particle size distribution was found.
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The aeronautical industry is a sector constantly looking for new materials and equipment because of its tendency to expand quickly. The Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is used frequently in the aeronautic, aerospace, automobile, chemical and medical industry because it presents high strength combined with low density (approximately 4.5 g/cm3), good creep resistance (up to 550°C), excellent corrosion resistance, high flexibility, good fatigue and biocompatibility. As a result of these properties, this titanium alloy is considered an excellent material for manufacturing structural parts in the aircraft industry for modern aeronautic structures, especially for airframes and aero-engines. But its use is also problematic because the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy manifests hydrogen embrittlement, by means of hydrides precipitation in the metal. The Ti6Al4V alloy becomes brittle and fractures because of hydrogen diffusion into metal and because titanium hydrides appear and create pressure from within the metal, thus generating corrosion. Because of titanium hydrides, the titanium alloy suffers from reduced ductility, tensile strength and toughness, which can result in fractures of aeronautical parts. This poses a very serious problem for aircrafts. In this paper, rapid hydrogen embrittlement is presented along with XRD, SEM and TEM analysis. Its goal is to detect the presence of titanium hydrides and to spot the initial cracks in the metallic material.
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A nanocrystalline Ti alloy powder was fabricated using cryomilling. The grain size and lattice strain evolution during cryomilling were quantitatively analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) based on the Scherrer equation, Williamson-Hall (W-H) plotting method, and size-strain (S-S) method assuming uniform deformation. Other physical parameters including stress and strain have been calculated. The average crystallite size and the lattice strain evaluated from XRD analysis are in good agreement with the result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
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Abstrakt

A nanocrystalline Ti alloy powder was fabricated using cryomilling. The grain size and lattice strain evolution during cryomilling were quantitatively analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) based on the Scherrer equation, Williamson-Hall (W-H) plotting method, and size-strain (S-S) method assuming uniform deformation. Other physical parameters including stress and strain have been calculated. The average crystallite size and the lattice strain evaluated from XRD analysis are in good agreement with the result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
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Abstrakt

In this study, two different compositions of submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and micron-structured chromium (4.66 μm) powders were mixed to fabricate Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys by vacuum hot-press sintering. The research imposed various hot-press sintering pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while the sintering temperature maintained at 1250°C for 1 h. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of the hot-press sintered Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were 1250°C at 50 MPa for 1 h. Also, the relative density reached 99.94%, the closed porosity decreased to 0.04% and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increased to 81.90 HRA and 448.53 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced to 1.58 × 104 S·cm–1. However, the grain growth generated during the high-temperature and high-pressure of the hot-press sintering process resulted in the grain coarsening phenomenon of the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys after 1250°C hot-press sintering at 50 MPa for 1 h. In addition, the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were fabricated with the submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (588 nm) powders showed more effective compaction than the micron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (4.66 μm) powders did. The closed porosity decreases to 0.02% and the hardness values increase to 83.23 HRA. However, the agglomeration phenomenon of the Cr phase and brittleness of the TiCr2 Laves phases easily led to a slight decrease in TRS (400.54 MPa).
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Abstrakt

The β-phase Titanium (β-Ti) alloys have been under the spotlight in the recent past for their use as biomedical prosthetic materials owing to their excellent properties such as low elastic modulus, high corrosion resistance and tensile strength. Recently, Niobium (Nb) has gained a lot of attention as a β-phase stabilizing element in Ti alloys to replace Vanadium (V) due to its excellent solubility in Ti, low elastic modulus and biocompatibility. In this work, low cost Ti-20Nb binary alloy has been fabricated via powder metallurgy procedures. The blended powder mixtures of Ti and Nb were sintered at 900°C for 20 mins by the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) with an applied uniaxial pressure of 40 MPa. The heating rate was fixed at 50°C/min. The sintered alloy was subject to heat treatments at 1200°C in vacuum condition for various time durations. The characterizations of microstructure obtained during this process were done using FE-SEM, EDS and XRD. By increasing heat treatment time, as understood, the volume of residual Nb particles was decreased resulting in accelerated diffusion of Nb into Ti. Micro hardness of the alloy increased from 340 to 355 HV with the increase in β phase content from 30 to 45%. The resultant alloys had relatively high densities and homogenized microstructures of dispersed lamellar β grains in α matrix.
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In the work results of research on electrodischarge machining (EDM) of titanium alloy Ti10V2Fe3Al with (α + β) structure were presented. Preliminary heat treatment of samples allows to obtain different morphology and volume fraction of the α phase. The main goal of research was to assessment of the material microstructure impact on EDM technological factors (ie. material removal rate, tool wear) and morphology of technological surface layer. Electrodischarge machining is alternative and increasingly used method of titanium alloys machining. Research allowed to indicate the possibilities and limitations of use EDM in this area. It is especially important in the aspect of parts produced for aircraft industry and related requirements for the technological surface layer quality.
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The aim of that work was the evaluation of the quality of welded connections elements (welds) from the 30HGS steel and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The metallographic, factographic tests were used, and measurements of microhardness with the Vickers method. In the head weld of the 30HGS steel there were non-metallic partial division and bubbles observed. The average microhardness in the head connection was 320 HV0.1. There was no significant increase/decrease observed of microhardness in the head influence zone of the weld. There was a good condition of head connections observed, in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. In the head weld of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy there were single, occasional non-metallic interjections and bubbles observed. There were no cracks both on the weld, and on the border of the heat influence zone. The value of microhardness in head connection was in the range 300÷445 HV0.1. Reveal a very good condition of the head connections in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. The factographic tests prove the correctness of welded connections done and then heat treatment in case of steel and titanium alloy.
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