The exudation layer seriously affects the properties and the surface finish of the tin bronze alloy. The effective control of the exudation thickness is important measure for improving the properties of the alloy. In order to study the influence of process parameters on the thickness of exudate layer, the tin bronze alloy was prepared by continuous unidirectional solidification technology at different process parameters. The microstructure of the continuous unidirectional solidification tin bronze alloy was analyzed. The effect of process parameters on microstructure and chemical compositions was studied by orthogonal experiment. The results show that there exists an exudation layer on the surface of the continuous unidirectional solidification tin bronze alloy, and the exudation is mainly composed of a tin-rich precipitated phase. It indicates that the continuous casting speed is the main factor affecting the thickness of exudation layer, followed by mold temperature, melt temperature, cooling water temperature and cooling distance.
High prices of tin and its limited resources, as well as several valuable properties characterising Cu-Sn alloys, cause searching for materials of similar or better properties at lower production costs. The influence of various nickel additions to CuSn10 casting bronze and to CuSn8 bronze of a decreased tin content was tested. Investigations comprised melting processes and casting of tin bronzes containing various nickel additions (up to 5%). The applied variable conditions of solidification and cooling of castings (metal and ceramic moulds) allowed to assess these alloys sensitivity in forming macro and microstructures. In order to determine the direction of changes in the analysed Cu-Sn-Ni alloys, the metallographic and strength tests were performed. In addition, the solidification character was analysed on the basis of the thermal analysis tests. The obtained results indicated the influence of nickel in the solidification and cooling ways of the analysed alloys (significantly increased temperatures of the solidification beginning along with increased nickel fractions in Cu-Sn alloys) as well as in the microstructure pattern (clearly visible grain size changes). The hardness and tensile strength values were also changed. It was found, that decreasing of the tin content in the analysed bronzes to which approximately 3% of nickel was added, was possible, while maintaining the same ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness (HB) and improved plasticity (A5).