This paper outlines issues associated with gas-shielded braze welding of CU-ETP copper with austenitic steel X5CrNi18-10 (1.4301) using a consumable electrode. The possibilities for producing joints of this type using innovative low-energy welding methods are discussed. The paper provides an overview of the results of metallographic and mechanical (static shear test, microhardness) tests for braze welded joints made on an automated station using the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method. Significant differences in the structure and mechanical properties are indicated, resulting from the joint configuration and the type of shielding gas (argon, helium).
The small artificial surface defects in the coarse-grain steel are studied. The size of the used defects is smaller than the most relevant microstructural unit of steel, i.e. the average grain size. The samples of coarse-grain steel are prepared using a welding thermal-cycle simulator and a laboratory furnace. The defects are made by indenting with a Vickers pyramid. One of the final results of the defect making is the existence of local residual stresses. The influence of residual stresses on the crack initiation from those artificial defects is discussed in the article.
In this article examinations of hybrid welding technology (laser beam + MAG) of T-joints from thermomechanically worked high strength steel S700MC 10 mm thick were presented. Joints welded from one side and both sides were made. Carried examinations enabled to classify joints in quality level B according to ISO 12932 (Welding. Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and nickel alloys. Quality levels for imperfections). In case of one sided welding with partial penetration with beam power of 8.5 kW 8 mm of penetration was achieved without noticeable distortion of web. Double sided joints were characterized with correct geometry. Joint metal is bainitic-ferritic in structure and its hardness rises about 40 HV1 in comparison to base metal hardness (280 HV1). In HAZ a slight softening of material in comparison to base metal is present.
This paper presents the method for determination of the time of further safe service for welded joints of boiler components after exceeding the design work time. The evaluation of the life of the parent material and its welded joints was performed. Microstructure investigations using a scanning electron microscope, investigations of strength properties, impact testing, hardness measurements and abridged creep tests of the basic material and welded joints were carried out. The investigations described in this paper allowed the time of further safe service of the examined components made of 13CrMo4-5 steel to be determined. The method for determination of the time of safe service of boiler components working under creep conditions allows their operation beyond the design service life. The obtained results of investigations are part of the materials database developed by the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy.
The paper presents the results of research work on linear FSW (Friction Stir Welding) joining aluminum alloys AA2024-T3 of 0.5 mm in thickness. The study was conducted on properly adapted numerical controlled 3 axis milling machine using a ceramic tool and special designed fastening device. The tool dimensions have been estimated according to the algorithm shown in the literature . All joints were made of end-to end (butt) configuration under different welding speed. The rotational speed of the tool and tool offset was constant. The effect of selected technological parameters on the quality of the joint was analyzed. Produced butt joint have been subjected to a static tensile testing to identify mechanical features of the materials of joints compared to parent materials. Measurements of micro hardness HV in the plastically formed stir zone of joint and in the parent material have been carried out. Axial and radial welding forces in the joining region were recorded during the tests and their dependency from the welding parameters was studied. Based on the results of strength tests the efficiency of joints for sheets of 0.5 mm in thicknesses oscillated up to 96% compared to the parent material. It has been found that for given parameters the correct, free of defects joints were obtained. The paper also presents the results of low-cycle fatigue tests of obtained FSW joints. The use of a ceramic tool in the FSW process allows to obtain welds with higher strength than conventional tools. The results suggests that FSW can be potentially applied to joining aluminum alloys.