The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
In the paper, the results of investigations on the properties of acoustic emission signals generated in a tested pressure vessel are presented. The investigations were performed by repeating several times the following procedure: an increase in pressure, maintaining a given pressure level, a further increase in pressure, and then maintaining the pressure at new determined level. During the tests the acoustic emission signals were recorded by the measuring system 8AE-PD with piezoelectric sensors D9241A. The used eight-channel measuring system 8AE-PD enables the monitoring, recording and then basic and advanced analysis of signals. The results of basic analysis carried out in domain of time and the results of advanced analysis carried out in the discrimination threshold domain of the recorded acoustic emission signals are presented in the paper. In the framework of the advanced analysis, results are described by the defined by the author descriptors with acronyms ADC, ADP and ADNC. Such description is based on identifying the properties of amplitude distributions of acoustic emission signals by assigning them the level of advancement. It is shown that for signals including continoues AE or single burst AE signals descriptions of such registered signals by means of ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors and by Upp and Urms descriptors provide identical ordering of registered acoustic emission signals. For complex signals, the description using ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors based on the analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded signals gives the order of signals with more accurate connection with deformational processes being sources of acoustic emission signals.
Acoustical Driving Forces (ADF), induced by propagating waves in a homogeneous and inhomogeneous lossy fluid (suspension), are determined and compared depending on the concentration of suspended particles. Using integral equations of the scattering theory, the single particle (inclusion) ADF was calculated as the integral of the flux of the momentum density tensor components over the heterogeneity surface. The possibility of negative ADF was indicated. Originally derived, the total ADF acting on inclusions only, stochastically distributed in ambient fluid, was determined as a function of its concentration. The formula for the relative increase in ADF, resulting from increased concentration was derived. Numerical ADF calculations are presented. In experiments the streaming velocities in a blood-mimicking starch suspension (2 μm radius) in water and Bracco BR14 contrast agent (SF6 gas capsules, 1 μm radius) were measured as the function of different inclusions concentration. The source of the streaming and ADF was a plane 2 mm diameter 20 MHz ultrasonic transducer. Velocity was estimated from the averaged Doppler spectrum obtained from originally developed pulsed Doppler flowmeter. Numerical calculations of the theoretically derived formula showed very good agreement with the experimental results.
Currently used procedures in room acoustics measurements are not automated. Particularly in medium-sized and large areas they require a lot of time and intensive labour which directly translates into an increase in the measurement cost. Introduction of an automated system would increase efficiency of the measurements, and therefore could present both practical and scientific benefit. The paper presents initial feasibility study for designing a system that permits the measurement of selected acoustic parameters for any choice of three-dimensional grid of measurement points throughout the volume of the room. The system will utilize an autonomous probe attached to a blimp, and will be able to measure and analyze acoustic characteristics of the rooms. The article discusses the initial choices of the system elements, starting from the general idea, through the mechanical design and control procedures, the software that controls positioning and flying of the probe, up to the automation of the measurement procedure and its possible impact on the acoustic field.
The results of long-term continuous noise measurements in two selected schools are presented in the paper. Noise characteristics were measured continuously there for approximately 16 months. Measurements started eight months prior to the acoustic treatment of the school corridors of both schools. An evaluation of the acoustic climates in both schools, before and after the acoustic treatment, was performed based on comparison of these two periods of continuous measurements. The autonomous noise monitoring stations, engineered at the Multimedia Systems Department of the Gdańsk University of Technology were used for this purpose. Investigations of measured noise, especially its influence on hearing sense, assessed on ground of spectral analyses in critical bands, is discussed. Effects of occupational noise exposure, including the Temporary Threshold Shift simulation, are determined. The correlation of the above said measurement results with respective instantaneous noise levels is discussed, and concluding remarks are presented. Some additional indicators such as air pollution or video analysis aiming at the analysis of corridor occupancy are also measured. It should be remembered that excessive noise, or air pollution may be evidence of a dangerous event and may pose health risks.
Several methods can be applied for analyses of the acoustic field in enclosed rooms namely: wave propagation, geometrical or statistical analysis. The paper presents problems related to application of the boundary elements method to modelling of acoustic field parameters. Experimental and numerical studies have been combined for evaluation of acoustic impedance of the material used for the walls of a model room. The experimental studies have been carried out by implementing a multichannel measuring system inside the constructed model of an industrial room. The measuring system allowed simultaneous measurements of the source parameters - the loudspeaker membrane vibration speed, the acoustic pressure values in reception points located inside the model space as well as phase shifts between signals registered in various reception points. The numerical modelling making use of the acoustic pressure values measured inside the analyzed space allowed determination of requested parameters of the surface at the space boundary.
In the acoustic fatigue experiment for hypersonic vehicle in simulated harsh service environment on ground, acoustic loads on the surface of test pieces of the vehicle need to be measured. However, for the normal microphones without high temperature resistance ability, the near field sound measurement cannot be achieved. In this work, on the basis of previous researches, an acoustic tubes array is designed to achieve the near field measurement of acoustic loads on the surface of the test piece in the supersonic airflow with high temperature achieved by coherent jet oxygen lance. Firstly, the process of designing this acoustic tubes array is introduced. Secondly, the equality of phase differences at the front and at the end of the tubes is stated and proved using a phase differences test with an acoustic tubes array whose design is presented in this text; therefore, the phase differences of signals acquired by microphones can be directly applied to beamforming algorithm to determine the acoustic load source. Finally, using above mentioned acoustic tubes array, measurement of acoustic load, with and without a test piece in the supersonic airflow made by the coherent jet oxygen lance, is conducted respectively, and the measurements results are analyzed.
The absorption of sound in air represents one of the main problems of the scale model measurements. This absorption, especially at higher frequencies, is considerably greater than the value determined by the law of acoustical similarity between the full scale and the scale model. Different alternatives are applied for compensation of the excess air absorption including a numerical compensation. In this paper, a modified approach to numerical compensation is proposed. It is based on compensation of the sound decay only, and not background noise. As a consequence, there is no an increase of background noise in the compensated impulse response. The results obtained by the proposed procedure are compared to the corresponding ones obtained by the other procedures.
The assessment of the uncertainty of measurement results, an essential problem in environmental acoustic investigations, is undertaken in the paper. An attention is drawn to the - usually omitted - problem of the verification of assumptions related to using the classic methods of the confidence intervals estimation, for the controlled measuring quantity. Especially the paper directs attention to the need of the verification of the assumption of the normal distribution of the measuring quantity set, being the base for the existing and binding procedures of the acoustic measurements assessment uncertainty. The essence of the undertaken problem concerns the binding legal and standard acts related to acoustic measurements and recommended in: 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) (OIML 1993), developed under the aegis of the International Bureau of Measures (BIPM). The model legitimacy of the hypothesis of the normal distribution of the measuring quantity set in acoustic measurements is discussed and supplemented by testing its likelihood on the environment acoustic results. The Jarque-Bery test based on skewness and flattening (curtosis) distribution measures was used for the analysis of results verifying the assumption. This test allows for the simultaneous analysis of the deviation from the normal distribution caused both by its skewness and flattening. The performed experiments concerned analyses of the distribution of sound levels: LD, LE, LN, LDWN, being the basic noise indicators in assessments of the environment acoustic hazards.
Particle Image Velocimetry is getting more and more often the method of choice not only for visualization of turbulent mass flows in fluid mechanics, but also in linear and non-linear acoustics for non-intrusive visualization of acoustic particle velocity. Particle Image Velocimetry with low sampling rate (about 15Hz) can be applied to visualize the acoustic field using the acquisition synchronized to the excitation signal. Such phase-locked PIV technique is described and used in experiments presented in the paper. The main goal of research was to propose a model of PIV systematic error due to non-zero time interval between acquisitions of two images of the examined sound field seeded with tracer particles, what affects the measurement of complex acoustic signals. Usefulness of the presented model is confirmed experimentally. The correction procedure, based on the proposed model, applied to measurement data increases the accuracy of acoustic particle velocity field visualization and creates new possibilities in observation of sound fields excited with multi-tonal or band-limited noise signals.