In the era of an aging society, age friendly cities planning is gaining in importance. Due to the low mobility of these people, it is important to plan their immediate living environment, ensuring access to facilities and areas that meet the basic needs of this special group of urban space users. The paper analyzes the potential accessibility of older people to green areas, sports and recreation facilities, service and commercial facilities, culture and health care facilities, and public transport stops, in order to delimit problem areas characterized by functional and spatial deficits in this area. In addition, the level and quality of accessibility of older people to the abovementioned elements of development.
The authoress wishes to discuss the idea of engaging senior citizens into the maintenance and care of historical park and garden complexes. The article illustrates the possible mutual benefits of the cooperation between the caretakers of these complexes and organized groups of senior citizens, who whose participation would be based on a form of voluntary help, through a foundation, or based on monetary compensation. Such a cooperation could lead to an improvement of the condition of historical gardens, in addition to providing beneficial effects to the physical and mental he alth of older people.
Searching and exploring the motives of continuing in the profession may be an important objective of efforts undertaken by researchers and people directly responsible for the organization and quality of work. Identifying the needs and expectations of the employee is an important element of her/his adaptation in the work environment. Because the age of life is one of the factors affecting the perception of the world and work, in this article motives of continuing professional activity in group of special educators are described in the age of life context.
Reference intervals (RIs) are one of the essential elements in the procedure of disease diagnosis. This is especially true for feline species in which RI is less available than in canine species. RIs are affected by biological, geographical and instrumental factors, yet published RIs with incomplete background are popularly used. Inappropriate interpretations of RIs may affect classification of disease and subsequent treatment. In this study, we demonstrated the step-by-step establishment of feline RIs following the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) reference interval guideline. A total of 51 parameters were examined, including 20 hematology and 31 biochemistry parameters, and the results were compared to one local RI and two foreign RIs. Overall, about 29% (10/35) of tested parameters were different form local RIs and 60% (30/50) were different from the two foreign RIs, highlighting geographical variations. A higher upper reference limit (URL) in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Hct), Hemoglobin (Hgb), albumin, creatinine and lower URL in potassium and white blood cell count (WBC) were identified, which may impact the interpretation. In addition, statistical analysis of age and gender were factored separately and indicated that 10 parameters were significantly higher in the adult group. For the impact of gender, percentage of basophil and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were lower in female and male cats, respectively. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that it is desirable to establish in-house RIs or RIs of local sources. An age specific RI for the geriatric feline population is advisable for better diagnosis and monitoring the disease.
Observations indicate a constantly decreasing mean age of shoal. In consecutive years of investigations a loss of older individuals was recorded. At present the catches consist of 3—14 years old fishes; 9—10 years old dominate. During the austral summer the fish most probably do not migrate. The shoal of the shelf maintains approximately constant frequency and dominance in classes of length.
The local aspect of aging is often ignored. However, municipalities, in particular cities will be affected by the consequences of population aging, in particular a decrease in tax revenues and an increase of expenditures on public goods demanded by the elderly. In this paper we use a static general equilibrium model to analyse the impact of aging on city’s finances. We show that an increase in the number of pensioners will raise the cost of public goods. However, an increase in the number of working elderly can alleviate the situation.
According to metrological guidelines and specific legal requirements, every smart electronic electricity meter has to be constantly verified after pre-defined regular time intervals. The problem is that in most cases these pre-defined time intervals are based on some previous experience or empirical knowledge and rarely on scientifically sound data. Since the verification itself is a costly procedure it would be advantageous to put more effort into defining the required verification periods. Therefore, a fixed verification interval, recommended by various internal documents, standardised evaluation procedures and national legislation, could be technically and scientifically more justified and consequently more appropriate and trustworthy for the end user. This paper describes an experiment to determine the effect of alternating temperature and humidity and constant high current on a smart electronic electricity meter’s measurement accuracy. Based on an analysis of these effects it is proposed that the current fixed verification interval could be revised, taking into account also different climatic influence. The findings of this work could influence a new standardized procedure in respect of a meter’s verification interval.
The paper analyzes the effect of ageing on the variations in the mechanical and technological properties of steel wire. The process of drawing 5.5 mm-diameter wire rod into 1.70 mm wire was carried out in 12 draws on a Koch KGT multi-stage drawing machine in the drawing velocity range of 5-25 m/s. Finished 1.7 mm-diameter wires after, respectively, 1, 24, 720 and 8760 hours of the completion of the drawing process were subjected to testing to determine their mechanical and technological properties. The yield strength, YS; tensile strength, UTS; uniform elongation, Ar; total elongation, Ac; reduction of area, Z; number of twists, Nt; and the number of bends, Nb, have been determined. It has been demonstrated that variations in mechanical properties occur after the multi-stage drawing process due to ageing, with their degree and mode being dependent on the drawing speed.
The functionality of a prosthesis is determined by clinical procedures, the manufacturing technology applied, the material used and its strength parameters. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the static strength and fatigue strength of acrylic construction materials directly after the process of polymerisation and for aged materials. It has been confirmed that the deformation speed of the tested materials has an evident impact on their mechanical characteristics. With greater deformation speed, a consistent increase in the material elasticity was observed in static compression tests, which was accompanied by a reduction in engineering stresses at the final stage of deformation. The greatest fatigue strength was observed for Vertex. It was by about 33% greater than the strength of Villacryl – the material that has the lowest fatigue properties. The resistance of acrylic polymers to cyclic loading applied with the frequency of 1 Hz may become an indication for the selection of the material to be used in the clinical procedures in which a patient is provided with full dentures.
In this study, variations in the contact resistance of electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers with Fe content were investigated. The contact resistance of electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers that were subject to thermal aging at 260°C in the atmosphere, tended to increase significantly with an increase in the Fe content. Through an analysis method employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Ni oxides, such as NiO and Ni2O3, on the surface of the thermally aged electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers were observed. It is believed that the Ni oxide existing on the surface diffused from the underlying electroplated Ni layers to the surface through the grain boundaries in the electroplated Au-Fe layers during the thermal aging. As the Fe content in the electroplated Au-Fe layers increased, the grain size decreased. As the grain size decreases, more Ni oxide was detected on the surface. Therefore, with a rise in the Fe content, more Ni diffuses to the surface via grain boundaries, and more Ni oxide is formed on the surface of the electroplated Au-Fe layers, increasing the contact resistance of the electroplated Au-Fe alloy layers.
The objective of this study was to investigate the dependence of the room temperature tensile properties on the volume fraction of discontinuous precipitates (DPs) in a cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. In order to obtain various volume fractions of DPs, the solution-treated alloy was aged at 428 K for up to 48 h. The volume fraction of DPs increased from 0% to 72% with an increase in the aging time up to 24 h; for aging times longer than 24 h, discontinuous precipitation was substantially inhibited owing to the occurrence of significant continuous precipitation within the α-(Mg) grains. YS and UTS of the alloy increased with the volume fraction of DPs, whereas the elongation showed a reverse trend. A relatively rapid change in the tensile properties with increasing volume fraction of DPs up to ~40% was noted, which would be due to the reduction of the effective α grain size in response to the formation of DPs along the grain boundaries.
Twelve glaciers, representing various types, were investigated between 2000 and 2005, in a region adjacent to the northern reaches of Billefjorden, central Spitsbergen ( Svalbard ). On the basis of measurements taken using reference points, DGPS and GPS systems, analyses of aerial photographs and satellite images, geomorphological indicators and archival data their rates of deglaciation following the “Little Ice Age” (LIA) maximum were calculated variously on centennial, decadal and annual time scales. As most Svalbard glaciers have debris-covered snouts, a clean ice margin was measured in the absence of debris-free ice front. The retreat rates for both types of ice fronts were very similar. All studied glaciers have been retreating since the termination of the Little Ice Age at the end of 19th century. The fastest retreat rate was observed in the case of the Nordenskiöldbreen tidewater glacier (mean average linear retreat rate 35 m a-1). For land-terminating glaciers the rates were in range of 5 to 15 m a-1. Presumably owing to climate warming, most of the glacier retreat rates have increased several fold in recent decades. The secondary factors influencing the retreat rates have been identified as: water depth at the grounding line in the case of tidewater glaciers, surging history, altitude, shape and aspect of glacier margin, and bedrock relief. The retreat rates are similar to glaciers from other parts of Spitsbergen . Analyses of available data on glacier retreat rates in Svalbard have allowed us to distinguish four major types: very dynamic, surging tidewater glaciers with post-LIA retreat rates of between 100 and 220 m a-1, other tidewater glaciers receding of a rate of 15 to 70 m a-1, land terminating valley polythermal glaciers with an average retreat of 10 to 20 m a-1 and small, usually cold, glaciers with the retreat rates below 10 m a-1.
The authors draw on their experience and past mountain landscape studies to describe an emerging collaborative research project designed to conduct advanced field studies and generate (and test) archaeological landscape models of past hunter-gatherer populations as well as pastoralist and early farming community seasonal transhumance migrations between lowland river valleys of Poland’s Podhale Basin and high altitude forests and meadows its adjacent High Tatra Mountains.
The article describes the influence of anomalous values and local variability on the structure of variability and the estimation of deposit parameters. The research was carried out using statistical and geostatistical methods based on the Pb accumulation index in the shale series in part of the Cu-Ag ore deposit, LGCD (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). The authors recommend the use of a geostatistical tool, the so-called semivariogram cloud to determine the anomalous values. Anomalous values determined by the geostatistical method and removed from the dataset have resulted in a significant reduction of the relative variability of data, which is still very large in the case of the analyzed parameter or parameters with similar statistical features such as extreme variability and strongly asymmetric distribution. Calculations of the resources of this element can be treated only as estimates and formally classified to category D. The hypothetical assumption of the absence of sampling errors, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of local variation, leads to a certain reduction of the median error of resource estimates. However, they are still high (> 35%). This is due to the large natural variability of the accumulation index of Pb on the local observation scale. The current method for collecting samples from mine workings of the Cu-Ag deposits in the Lubin-Głogów Copper District (LGCD), aimed at the proper assessment of copper resources, the Cu content, and at estimating the quality of copper output, makes it impossible to achieve an accuracy of estimates of Pb resources similar to that obtained for the main metal. Theoretically, this effect can be achieved by a strong concentration of the sample collection points and thanks to a multiple increase in the samples weight; this, however, is unrealistic for both economic and organizational reasons. It is therefore to be expected that the assessment of Pb resources and other accompanying elements of similar statistical features (e.g. As), located in parts of the deposit where mining activities are to be carried out, will be subject to significant errors.
The process of cognitive aging in global sense can be characterised by changes of the fluid and crystallised intelligence. In the context of this explanation the basic question is which cognitive functions and regulatory mechanisms play the basic role of the determinants for cognitive aging. Probable, mechanism of associative memory play a central role in top-down direction of cognitive processing. This type of memory connect the resources/networks of long term memory with the current processing in working memory. Another set of mechanisms concerns with bottom-up direction based on procedural memory, which is fundamental for the functioning of the mind as whole (Tulving theory,1985). Unfortunately, our knowledge about associative memory and its relations to working and procedural memory is incomplete and unclear. The importance of associative memory are partly, empirically supported by classic research on decreasing the cognitive components of intelligence aging, since the fluid and crystallized intelligence where discovered (Horn, Cattell, 1967). Changes of the mind functioning and its cognitive growth/aging can be characterised as a complex chain from primary, biologically determined mind, through Piagetian and Vygotsky’s type of mind to relatively balanced mind.