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Abstract

In our previous Genome-wise Association Study we found that Cystic Fibrosis Transmem- brane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) is a candidate gene for sperm motility in fresh semen of Holstein-Friesian bulls. Since in cows thawed semen is commonly used for the artificial insem- ination (AI) we have decided to find out whether functional polymorphism within CFTR gene coding sequence is associated with selected parameters of thawed sperm, including their motility evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), the activity of three antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ATP con- tent and integrity of sperm membranes. One hundred twenty Holstein Friesian bulls kept in uni- form environmental conditions (one AI company) were included in the study. Significant associ- ations between genotypes of missense mutation within exon 11 of the CFTR gene (Met468Leu) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sperm mitochondrial function were revealed. No effect of CFTR genotypes on sperm motility was observed. Significant differences in CAT and SOD activity were found between AA and TT homozygous individuals. Bulls with TT genotype had the lowest activity of both antioxidant enzymes. The same bulls also showed the lowest num- ber of sperm with active mitochondria. Our results demonstrate that missense mutation Met468Leu within CFTR gene is associated with antioxidant enzyme activity and mitochondrial function of bovine thawed sperm without affecting their motility.
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Abstract

Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. seedlings grown in nutrient solution were subjected to increasing concentrations of Cd2+ (0, 1, 10, 100 μM). Variation in tolerance to cadmium toxicity was studied based on chromosome aberrations, nucleoli structure and reconstruction of root tip cells, Cd accumulation and mineral metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and changes in the antioxidative defense system (SOD, CAT, POD) in leaves and roots of the seedlings. Cd induced chromosome aberrations including C-mitoses, chromosome bridges, chromosome fragments and chromosome stickiness. Cd induced the production of some particles of argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and even extruded from the nucleoli into the cytoplasm after a high Cd concentration or prolonged Cd stress, and nucleolar reconstruction was inhibited. In Cd2+-treated Allium cepa var. agrogarum plants the metal was largely restricted to the roots; very little of it was transported to aerial parts. Adding Cd2+ to the nutrient solution affected mineral metabolism. For example, at 100 μM Cd it reduced the levels of Mn, Cu and Zn in roots, bulbs and leaves. Malondialdehyde content in roots and leaves increased with treatment time and increased concentration of Cd. Antioxidant enzymes appear to play a key role in resistance to Cd under stress conditions.
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